Table 6– Logistic regression model in nonsmokers, with the primary exposure variable of well water arsenic and the outcome variable of interest of the presence or absence of dyspnoea
Independent variablesCrude OR (95% CI)p-valueFemales and malesFemales onlyMales only
Adjusted OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p-value
Females and males1.56 (1.30–1.88)<0.001
Females1.51 (1.24–1.85)<0.001
Males2.01 (1.15–3.52)0.015
Well arsenic#
 Reference1.001.001.001.00
 High1.56 (1.29–1.88)<0.0011.51 (1.23–1.84)<0.0012.00 (1.14–3.52)0.016
Age1.03 (1.02–1.04)<0.0011.03 (1.02–1.05)<0.0011.03 (1.00–1.05)0.050
Education0.96 (0.93–0.99)0.0030.96 (0.93–0.99)0.0040.98 (0.92–1.04)0.545
Sex1.65 (1.24–2.20)0.001
Systolic BP1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.3001.00 (0.99–1.01)0.2931.00 (0.99–1.02)0.870
BMI group
 11.20 (0.98–1.46)0.0711.15 (0.93–1.42)0.1971.67 (0.94–3.00)0.083
 21.28 (0.92–1.77)0.1391.19 (0.83–1.70)0.3501.96 (0.88–4.36)0.099
  • BP: blood pressure; BMI: body mass index. #: the reference well water arsenic concentration was <50 μg·L−1, with high arsenic being ≥50 μg·L−1; : BMI categorised as low (<18.5 kg·m−2; group 1) and high (≥25 kg·m−2; group 2).