Table 3– Diagnostic and treatment findings evaluated in five national tuberculosis (TB) reference centres
Group 1 countryGroup 2a countryGroup 2b countryGroup 3 countryGroup 4 country
TB diagnosis
 Case definition
  Susceptible10 (25.0)5 (12.5)5 (12.5)8 (20.0)10 (25.0)
  MDR26 (65.0)22 (55.0)25 (62.5)9 (22.5)28 (70.0)
  XDR4 (10.0)4 (10.0)4 (10.0)21 (52.5)2 (5.0)
 Duration of symptoms until diagnosis days30 (30–67.5)30 (30–90)30 (15–60)60 (30–90)60 (17.5–90)
 Previous diagnosis of TB recorded9 (22.5)21 (56.8)13 (32.5)22 (55.0)15 (37.5)
 Extra-pulmonary TB4 (10.0)1 (2.5)5 (12.5)0 (0.0)2 (5.0)
 Positive microscopy result19 (47.5)23 (57.5)32 (80.0)39 (97.5)30 (75)
 NAAT performed within the diagnostic algorithm for active TB31 (77.5)7 (18.0)39 (97.5)14 (35)0 (0)
 TST performed within the diagnostic algorithm for active TB15 (37.5)1 (2.5)3 (7.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Positive TST10 (66.7)1 (100.0)
 IGRAs performed within the diagnostic algorithm for active TB0 (0.0)0 (0.0)39 (97.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 QuantiFERON®-TB Gold# kit for IGRA39 (100)
 Positive IGRA38 (97.4)
 Previous TST results recorded0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (2.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Previous IGRA results recorded0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (2.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Strains resistant to fluoroquinolones4 (13.3)4 (12.5)5 (18.5)23 (74.2)2 (6.9)
 Strains resistant to second-line injectable drugs14 (46.7)6 (20.0)12 (44.4)24 (72.4)13 (44.8)
 Number of previous anti-TB treatment regimens >1 month1.2±0.442±0.871.4±0.671.5±0.962.1±1.2
 HIV test offered39 (97.5)40 (100.0)37 (92.5)23 (57.5)19 (47.5)
 HIV-positive cases at current diagnosis2 (5.1)0 (0.0)1 (2.5)19 (48.7)1 (7.1)
 Males23 (57.5)40 (100.0)24 (60.0)32 (80.0)22 (55.0)
 Age of patients surveyed in the reference centre yrs45.4±14.837.7±12.437.3±15.542.2±11.833.9±14.0
 Homeless patients1 (2.5)6 (15.0)1 (2.5)1 (2.5)0 (0.0)
 Intravenous drug users0 (0.0)11 (27.5)2 (5.0)14 (35.0)0 (0.0)
 Alcohol abuse
  Current14 (35.0)20 (50.0)2 (5.0)15 (37.5)1 (2.6)
  Former2 (5.0)2 (5.0)0 (0.0)1 (2.5)0 (0.0)
TB treatment
 Patients who experienced adverse events of anti-TB drugs14 (35.0)6 (15.4)22 (55.0)8 (20.0)14 (35.0)
 Antiretroviral treatment2 (100.0)1 (100.0)12 (63.2)0 (0.0)
 Dosages of antiretroviral drugs adequate2 (100.0)1 (100.0)12 (63.2)0 (0.0)
 Patients who experienced adverse events of antiretroviral drugs0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Surgery performed for current diagnosis4 (10.0)1 (2.5)2 (4.1)2 (5.0)1 (2.5)
 Laserson’s criteria for treatment outcome
  Cured19 (63.3)3 (11.5)2 (8.0)9 (34.6)20 (69.0)
  Completed1 (3.3)5 (19.2)
  Died4 (13.3)1 (3.9)2 (8.0)6 (23.1)3 (10.4)
  Defaulted6 (20.0)1 (3.9)5 (19.2)4 (13.8)
  Transferred out21 (80.8)20 (80.0)1 (3.9)2 (6.9)
  Failed1 (4.0)
 Time to SS conversion days from start treatment45 (34–68)70 (30–150)49 (30–100)108 (65–286)32 (30–60)
 Time to culture conversion days58 (38–87)60 (40–120)81 (49–130)94 (65–286)60 (30–78)
  • Data are presented as n (%), median (interquartile range) or mean±sd. Group 1: former Soviet Union; intermediate TB incidence, high multidrug-resistant (MDR-)TB prevalence. Group 2a: northern Europe; low TB incidence, low MDR-TB prevalence. Group 2b: southern Europe; low TB incidence, low MDR-TB prevalence. Group 3: southern Europe; intermediate TB incidence, low MDR-TB prevalence. Group 4: central Europe; intermediate TB incidence, low MDR-TB prevalence. XDR: extensively drug-resistant; NAAT: nucleic acid amplification test; TST: tuberculin skin test; IGRA: interferon-γ release assay; SS: sputum smear. #: QuantiFERON®-TB Gold is manufactured by Cellestis (Chadstone, Australia). : outcomes for MDR-TB cases derived from [23]; note that in some low-incidence countries, as many TB deaths occur in the elderly, deaths are divided into death due to TB and death from other causes.