Table 4– Association between risk behaviour and tuberculosis (TB)–HIV co-infection
Country[Ref.]Study typeYearPatientsOutcomeTB groupAdjusted estimate (95% CI)Adjusting factors
The Netherlands[21]S1993–200113269 TBOR for HIV infectionNo risk group1Age, sex, year, residence, place of diagnosis, citizenship, site of disease, risk group
Illegal resident1.67 (1.08–2.4)*
Homeless1.55 (1.01–2.4)#
Drug users5.13 (3.81–6.89)***
Spain (Madrid)[34]L (>1 H)1987–1996418 person-yrs in PLWHA (after 9 months INH)HR for TB diseaseNo risk group
Any risk group
1Risk group (incarceration, homelessness, alcohol abuse, IDU, intimate contact with TB case), CD4
3.17 (1.56–17)***
Spain[32]L (>1 H)2000–20031242 PLWHAOR for TB infection (>1 H)Living alone1Age, sex, SES, contact with TB case, CD4 count, transmission route, hospital of study
Living with family1.3 (0.8–2.1)
Homeless/prison/institution1.7 (1–2.9)#
Spain (Northwest)[33]X1991–1997980 IDU on admission to prisonOR for TB–HIV infectionIDU1Age, sex, year, IDU status (former/present), needle sharing, tattoos, time in prison
Former IDU1.87 (1.23–2.82)
Not sharing1
Sharing syringes2.43 (1.57–3.77)
No tattoos1
Tattoos1.56 (0.98–2.49)
0 months in prison1
1–23 months in prison2.44 (1.28–4.64)
>23 months in prison4.94 (2.56–9.55)
  • S: surveillance; L (>1 H): multicentre cohort study; X: cross-sectional study; PLWHA: people living with HIV/AIDS; INH: isoniazid; IDU: intravenous drug users; OR: odds ratio; HR: hazard ratio; SES: socioeconomic status. ***: p<0.001; *: p<0.05; #: borderline significance.