Table 3– Associations between CD4 count and HIV transmission route and tuberculosis (TB)–HIV co-infection
Country[Ref.]Study typeYearPatientsOutcomeHIV transmission routeAdjusted estimate (95% CI)CD4 count at HIV diagnosis cells·mm−3Adjusted estimate (95% CI)Adjusting factors
France[29]S1997–200716927 AIDSOR for TB as AIDS-defining illness versus other AIDS-defining illnessesMSM1***<2001***Age, sex, CD4, known serostatus+ARV, transmission route, world region of origin, residence
IDU2.66 (2.26–3.14)200–3503.04 (2.66–3.47)
Hetero2.31 (2–2.67)>3503.62 (3.11–4.22)
O/U2.1 (1.76–2.5)Unknown1.73 (1.51–1.99)
Spain[30]L (>1 H)1980–200423698 person-yrs HIV seroconvertersHR for TB diseaseSexual1Age, sex, SES, occupation, CD4, viral load, transmission route, BCG scar, hospital of study
IDU3 (1.72–5.26)***
Clotting/haemophilia0.4 (0.19–0.88)
Spain (Madrid)[33]L (1 H)1987–1996418 person-yrs in PLWHA (after 9 months INH)HR for TB diseaseUnit increase0.995 (0.992–1.003)#Age at seroconversion, sex, transmission route, calendar period of TB
Spain[31]L (>1 H) open1997–20033196 PLWHA (HAART naïve)RR for TB diseaseMSM1***<2001***Age, sex, transmission route, calendar period of observation, CD4 at entry, viral load, HAART during follow-up
IDU (M)2.01 (1.28–3.16)200–3500.36 (0.28–0.46)
Hetero (M)0.84 (0.55–1.29)>3500.18 (0.15–0.21)
O/U (M)0.94 (0.36–2.47)Unknown0.23 (0.13–0.41)
IDU (F)1.45 (0.81–2.62)
Hetero (F)0.92 (0.37–2.30)
O/U (F)1.07 (0.67–1.71)
1072 PLWHA (on HAART)RR for TB diseaseMSM1***<2001***Age, sex, transmission route, calendar period of observation, CD4 at entry, viral load
IDU (M)0.61 (0.23–1.62)200–3500.27 (0.09–0.79)
Hetero (M)0.44 (0.13–1.44)>3500.17 (0.04–0.62)
O/U (M)0.68 (0.11–4.06)Unknown0.64 (0.06–6.79)
IDU (F)1.58 (0.77–3.24)
Hetero (F)0.40 (0.18–0.91)***
O/U (F)
Spain[32]L (>1 H)2000–2003315 PLWHA (MTB infected)OR for TB diseaseHetero1<10083.4 (17.0–409.3)*Age, sex, SES, contact with TB case, CD4 count, transmission route, hospital of study
IDU0.4 (0.2–1.1)100–1994.3 (1.5–12.0)*
MSM1.8 (0.4–7.4)200–4991.4 (0.6–3.2)
Transfusion0.3 (0.0–177.0)≥5001
Unknown1.6 (0.1–52.9)
  • S: surveillance; L (>1 H): multicentre cohort study; L (1 H): single hospital cohort study; L (>1 H) open: open multicentre cohort study; PLWHA: people living with HIV/AIDS; INH: isoniazid; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy; MTB: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; OR: odds ratio; HR: hazard ratio; RR: rate ratio; MSM: males having sex with males; IDU: intravenous drug users; hetero: heterosexual; O/U: other/unknown; M: male; F: female; ARV: antiretroviral drugs; SES: socioeconomic status; BCG: bacille Calmette–Guerin. ***: p<0.001; *: p<0.05; #: borderline significance.