Table 2– Associations between age group and male sex and tuberculosis (TB)–HIV co-infection
Country[Ref.]Study typeYearPatientsOutcomeAge group yrsAdjusted estimate (95% CI)SexAdjusted estimate (95% CI)Adjusting factors
The Netherlands[21]S1993–200113269 TBOR for HIV infection0–145.02 (1.67–15.15)Male1.61 (1.3–2.0)Age, sex, year, residence, place of diagnosis, citizenship, site of disease, risk group
15–249.45 (3.98–22.5)Female1***
25–3423.5 (10.3–53.7)
35–4428.9 (12.6–66.1)
45–5414.7 (6.25–34.4)
55–644.66 (1.73–12.5)
≥651***
France[29]S1997–200716927 AIDSOR for TB (AIDS defining)15–301.71 (1.49– 1.96)Male1.30 (1.16– 1.43)Age, sex, CD4, known serostatus+ARV, transmission route, world region of origin, residence
30–391.27 (1.15–1.39)Female1***
≥401***
Spain[30]L (>1 H)1980–200423698 person-yrs HIV seroconvertersHR for TB disease0–201Male1.61 (1.04–2.44)Age at seroconversion, sex, transmission route, calendar period of TB
21–301.25 (0.83–1.87)Female1
>301.38 (0.81–2.36)
≥500.5 (0.1–4.0)
Spain[31]L (>1 H) open1997–20033196 PLWHA (HAART naïve)RR for TB disease≤301Age, sex, transmission route, calendar period of observation, CD4 at entry, viral load, HAART at follow-up for HAART naïve
31–350.84 (0.67–1.05)
36–400.83 (0.54–1.26)
>400.96 (0.71–1.29)
1072 PLWHA (on HAART)RR for TB disease≤301Age, sex, transmission route, calendar period of observation, CD4 at entry, viral load, HAART during follow-up
31–350.83 (0.26–2.65)
36–401.17 (0.38–3.57)
>400.97 (0.41–2.29)
Spain[32]L (>1 H)2000–2003315 PLWHA (MTB infected)OR for TB disease≤291Male1.1 (0.42–3.33)Age, sex, SES, occupation, CD4, viral load, transmission route, BCG scar, hospital of study
30–391.6 (0.6–4.4)Female1
40–491.6 (0.5–5.1)
Spain (Northwest)[33]X1991–1997980 IDU on admission to prisonOR for TB–HIV infection16–241Male0.58 (0.31–1.1)Age, sex, year, IDU status (former/present), needle sharing, tattoos, time in prison
25–293.14 (1.71–5.75)Female1
>293.67 (1.96–6.86)
  • S: surveillance; L (>1 H): multicentre cohort study; L (>1 H) open: open multicentre cohort study; X: cross-sectional study; PLWHA: people living with HIV/AIDS; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy; MTB: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; IDU: intravenous drug users; OR: odds ratio; HR: hazard ratio; RR: rate ratio; ARV: antiretroviral drugs; SES: socioeconomic status; BCG: bacille Calmette–Guerin. ***: p<0.001.