Table 4– Spirometric indicators of obstructive airways disease in 1,322 children by maternal supplement assignment group. Nepal Nutritional Intervention Project-Sarlahi (NNIPS)-2 follow-up study, Nepal, 2006–2008
Supplement assignment after birthp-value
β-carotenePlaceboVitamin A
Sample size for males
 Subjects n254202226
 Subjects per ward25 (14–44)22 (9–45)19 (5–70)0.71
FEV1/FVC for males
 FEV1/FVC %87.5±7.187.6±6.187.8±6.00.88
 FEV1/FVC % (mean of ward means)87.6±1.387.5±1.888.1±1.20.66
PEF for males
 PEF L·s−13.66±0.913.78±0.823.79±0.750.17
 PEF L·s−1 (mean of ward means)3.69±0.193.91±0.333.86±0.230.18
FEF75% for males
 FEF75% L·s−10.86±0.340.83±0.300.89±0.330.15
 FEF75% L·s−1 (mean of ward means)0.87±0.070.83±0.060.89±0.060.17
MMEF for males
 MMEF L·s−11.93±0.591.92±0.521.98±0.530.44
 MMEF L·s−1 (mean of ward means)1.94±0.131.95±0.132.01±0.140.52
Sample size for females
 Subjects n209217214
 Subjects per ward22 (12–47)26 (7–45)19 (6–55)0.99
FEV1/FVC for females
 FEV1/FVC %89.1±6.688.9±6.889.4±6.10.75
 FEV1/FVC % (mean of ward means)89.0±2.288.7±1.689.4±2.20.75
PEF for females
 PEF L·s−13.45±0.793.50±0.883.49±0.740.80
 PEF L·s−1 (mean of ward means)3.44±0.303.61±0.473.47±0.190.55
FEF75% for females
 FEF75% L·s−10.85±0.340.81±0.320.8±0.320.47
 FEF75% L·s−1 (mean of ward means)0.84±0.120.84±0.130.86±0.120.90
MMEF for females
 MMEF L·s−11.90±0.551.86±0.571.93±0.510.45
 MMEF L·s−1 (mean of ward means)1.89±0.211.90±0.231.93±0.160.92
  • Data are presented as median (range) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; PEF: peak expiratory flow; FEF75%: forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC; MMEF: maximum mid-expiratory flow.