Table 1– Sample size, demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and prevalence of asthma, wheezing and other respiratory symptoms in 3,879 children who responded to the respiratory survey by supplement assignment group. Nepal Nutritional Intervention Project-Sarlahi (NNIPS)-1 follow-up study, 2006–2008
Supplement assignment after birthp-value
PlaceboVitamin A
Sample size
 Wards n2020
 Children n18242055
 Children per ward78 (22–184)83.5 (19–265)
 Age yrs18.7±2.118.7±2.10.73
 Age yrs (mean of ward means)18.6±0.318.7±0.30.71
 Sex males57590.29
 Sex males (mean of ward proportions)58590.40
Ward summaries of SES
 Lower caste81840.66
 Land ownership81830.74
 Owns livestock90870.16
 Owns radio47410.34
 House without roof or with a thatch roof40360.74
 House without walls or thatch-made walls81820.83
 Maternal literacy1090.74
 Father is farmer70660.34
Ward summaries of asthma prevalence
 Lifetime asthma (self-report)
 Physician diagnosis of asthma0.80.60.75
 Age at onset of asthma yrs11.2±6.011.3±6.00.85
 Current asthma (self-report)
Ward summaries of wheezing prevalence
 Lifetime wheeze11.312.20.24
 Wheezing in the past year6.76.50.85
 Wheezing attacks in the past year
 Wheezing accompanied by shortness of breath in the past year3.63.50.55
 Disturbed sleep from wheezing in the past year
  <1 night·week−
  >1 night·week−
Ward summaries of cough and phlegm prevalence
 Persistent cough (coughs more than normal)
 Chronic cough (3 months of consecutive cough in a 2-yr period)
 Time with cough yrs2.8±2.34.2±2.60.08
 Persistent phlegm (produces phlegm more than normal)12.410.30.29
 Chronic phlegm (3 months of consecutive phlegm production in a 2-yr period)
 Chronic productive cough1.21.00.60
 Dry cough at night in the past year6.25.80.83
 Time with phlegm yrs2.1±1.22.3±1.30.37
 Chest illnesses after colds23.124.90.49
 Phlegm episodes with chest illness n4.1±5.72.3±1.20.86
  • Data are presented as median (range), mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. SES: socioeconomic status.