Table 2– Sample size, demographics, socioeconomic indicators and prevalence of asthma, wheezing, and other respiratory symptoms in 1,551 children who responded to the respiratory survey by maternal supplement assignment group. Nepal Nutritional Intervention Project-Sarlahi (NNIPS)-2 follow-up study, 2006–2008
Supplement assignment after birthp-value
β-carotenePlaceboVitamin A
Sample size
 Wards n999
 Children n539476536
 Children per ward56 (29–105)59 (23–87)44 (16–134)
 Age yrs11.0±0.811.0±0.811.0±0.8
 Age yrs (mean of ward means)11.0±0.211.0±0.211.0±0.20.86
 Sex males534751
 Sex males (mean of ward proportions)5447510.11
Ward summaries of SES
 Lower caste8691840.37
 Land ownership7276720.20
 Owns livestock8484890.85
 Owns radio3129310.65
 House without roof or with a thatch roof2425240.99
 House without walls or thatch-made walls9196890.07
 Maternal literacy2010170.01
 Father is farmer5155460.12
Ward summaries of asthma prevalence
 Lifetime asthma (self-report)
 Physician diagnosis of asthma00.20.10.59
 Age at onset of asthma yrs2.5NA3.8#
 Current asthma (self-report)0.200.7#
Ward summaries of wheezing prevalence
 Lifetime wheeze14.719.316.70.48
 Wheezing in the past year5.
 Wheezing attacks in the past year
 Wheezing accompanied by shortness of breath in the past year2.
 Disturbed sleep from wheezing in the past year
  <1 night·week−
  >1 night·week−
Ward summaries of cough and phlegm prevalence
 Persistent cough (coughs more than normal)
 Chronic cough (3 months of consecutive cough in a 2-yr period)
 Time with cough yrs1.
 Persistent phlegm (produces phlegm more than normal)
 Chronic phlegm (3 months of consecutive phlegm production in a 2-yr period)
 Chronic productive cough0.50.100.76
 Dry cough at night in the past year3.
 Time with phlegm yrs1.6±1.01.4±0.71.8±1.90.26
 Chest illnesses after colds23.521.220.00.96
 Phlegm episodes with chest illness1.7±±0.50.02
  • Data are presented as median (range), mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. SES: socioeconomic status. NA: not available. #: could not estimate because of small sample size.