Table 4– The association of metabolic syndrome with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in the global sample
Independent variableUnadjusted OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p-value
Presence of OSA AHI ≥15 events·h−14.00 (1.93–8.31)<0.0012.84 (1.30–6.22)0.009
 Age yrs1.07 (1.03–1.11)0.001
 Sex#0.42 (0.18–0.98)0.045
 BMI kg·m−21.05 (0.98–1.13)0.147
 Smoking0.99 (0.59–1.68)0.972
 Presence of nocturnal hypoxaemia4.93 (2.46–9.90)<0.0013.34 (1.58–7.08)0.002
Time Sp,O2 <90% ≥4.65% of TST
 Age yrs1.06 (1.02–1.10)0.002
 Sex#0.53 (0.22–1.26)0.153
 BMI kg·m−21.05 (0.98–1.13)0.184
 Smoking0.90 (0.52–1.54)0.694
Presence of OSA with significant nocturnal hypoxaemia AHI ≥15 events·h−1 and time Sp,O2 <90% ≥4.65% of TST5.10 (2.51–10.39)<0.0013.29 (1.51–7.15)0.003
 Age yrs1.06 (1.02–1.10)0.004
 Sex#0.54 (0.23–1.29)0.168
 BMI kg·m−21.04 (0.97–1.12)0.250
 Smoking0.92 (0.54–1.58)0.765
  • Data were analysed using binary logistic regression. The presence of metabolic syndrome defined by National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III modified criteria [1] was considered the dependent variable. Data were adjusted for age, sex, BMI and smoking. Results were expressed as unadjusted and adjusted OR (95% CI) and p-value. AHI: apnoea/hypopnoea index; BMI: body mass index; time Sp,O2 <90% TST: mean percentage of total sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry <90% (presence of significant nocturnal hypoxaemia considering values higher or equal to the median of the variable time Sp,O2 <90% TST). #: no females, one male; : one smoker, no nonsmokers.