Table 3– Plasma cytokine levels
CytokineGPAIPFNormal
ActiveRemission
CXCL8 pg·mL−111.4 (16.1)19.8 (26.6)11.9 (11.2)*8.6 (3.9)
IL-1β pg·mL−10.0 (0.0)*0.0 (0.0)*0.0 (0.1)*8.6 (3.9)
ENA-78 pg·mL−11009.7 (828.1)*723.0 (937.8)984.5 (1209.0)*151.7 (187.0)
G-CSF pg·mL−112.9 (23.7)*15.5 (22.5)10.4 (15.6)*50.8 (49.5)
GM-CSF pg·mL−10.6 (2.8)*2.7 (5.8)*1.2 (4.4)*77.5 (12.8)
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range). There were no significant differences between disease cohorts. All cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK). GPA: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s); IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; CXCL: CXC chemokine ligand; IL: interleukin; ENA: epithelial neutrophil-activating protein; G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *: p<0.05 compared with normal controls when compared using Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn’s tests.