Table 2– Univariable Cox regression model#
ParameterHR (95% CI)p-valueMortality incidence rate per yr % (95% CI)
Demographics
 Females113.2 (10.9–16.1)
 Males1.7 (1.2–2.4)0.00218.5 (16–21.4)
Clinical history/presentation
 History of chills0.4 (0.3–0.6)<0.0016.5 (4.4–9.6)
Temperature in the ED in quartiles
 <37.0°C115.9 (11.8–21.4)
 37.0–37.9°C1 (0.7–1.6)0.89815.3 (11.4–20.4)
 37.9–38.7°C0.8 (0.5–1.3)0.37812.3 (8.9–17)
 >38.7°C0.5 (0.3–0.8)0.0058.9 (6–13.2)
Age in quartiles
 <59 yrs13.8 (2.2–6.6)
 59–73 yrs2.4 (1.2–4.6)0.019.8 (6.8–14)
 73–82 yrs3.9 (2.1–7.3)<0.00115.3 (11.2–20.8)
 >82 yrs6.4 (3.5–11.6)<0.00127.3 (21.5–34.5)
Comorbidities
 Chronic heart failure1.6 (1.1–2.4)0.01221.4 (15.6–29.4)
 COPD1.5 (1.1–2.1)0.0117.9 (13.9–23.1)
 Diabetes mellitus1.3 (0.9–2)0.14816.4 (11.6–23.2)
 Neoplastic disease3.0 (2.1–4.3)<0.00133.1 (24.3–45.1)
 Chronic renal failure2.0 (1.4–2.9)<0.00124.3 (18.5–31.8)
Initial severity assessment with PSI
 Class 1/212.7 (1.4–5)
 Class 33.1 (1.5–6.5)0.0038.5 (5.6–12.9)
 Class 46.6 (3.4–12.8)<0.00119.4 (15.5–24.1)
 Class 511.6 (5.8–23.3)<0.00134.1 (25–46.5)
Blood markers in quartiles
 CRP
  <105 mg·dL−1¶,+118.1 (13.8–23.8)
  105–181 mg·dL−10.8 (0.5–1.2)0.21914.1 (10.4–19)
  181–265 mg·dL−10.9 (0.6–1.3)0.52615.3 (11.3–20.6)
  >265 mg·dL−10.3 (0.2–0.5)<0.0015.3 (3.3–8.7)
  Procalcitonin
  <0.21–0.70 ng·L−1¶,+111.0 (7.9–15.4)
  0.21–0.70 ng·L−11.6 (1–2.5)0.03917.4 (13.1–23)
  0.70–3.8 ng·L−11.2 (0.8–2)0.36213.4 (9.7–18.4)
  >3.8 ng·L−10.8 (0.5–1.3)0.32910.9 (7.6–15.4)
 ProADM
  <0.83 nmol·L−1¶,+16.5 (4.3–10)
  0.83–1.22 nmol·L−11.1 (0.6–2)0.77.8 (5.2–11.6)
  1.22–1.97 nmol·L−12.4 (1.4–4.1)0.00116.6 (12.4–22.1)
  >1.97 nmol·L−13.5 (2.1–5.7)<0.00125.9 (20–33.4)
 WBC
  <9.8 cells×109·L−1¶,+111.5 (8.3–16)
  9.8–13.0 cells×109·L−11.3 (0.8–2)0.2915.1 (11.3–20.3)
  13.0–17.4 cells×109·L−11.0 (0.6–1.6)0.91511.1 (7.8–15.7)
  >17.4 cells×109·L−11.2 (0.8–1.9)0.41814.6 (10.8–19.9)
 Albumin
  >39 g·L−1110.2 (6.4–16.5)
  35–39 g·L−11.5 (0.8–2.8)0.17914.3 (9.8–20.9)
  30–35 g·L−11.5 (0.9–2.8)0.14315.4 (11–21.4)
  <30 g·L−11.5 (0.8–2.8)0.17614.3 (9.8–20.8)
  • HR: hazard ratio; ED: emergency department; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PSI: Pneumonia Severity Index; CRP: C-reactive protein; proADM: pro-adrenomedullin; WBC: white blood cells. #: n = 877; : reference group; +: peak levels during hospitalisation were used.