Table 1– Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) and modelled exposure to air pollutants according to residential proximity to main roads
Variables≤150 m#≥150 mMean difference (95% CI)p-value
FVC z score0.42±0.880.42±1.110.00 (-0.55–0.55)0.99
FEV1 z score0.31±0.89-0.14±0.980.45 (-0.07–0.98)0.09
FEV1:FVC z score-0.76±0.74-0.89±0.860.13 (-0.33–0.57)0.58
FEV0.5 z score-1.03±0.82-1.08±1.120.05 (-0.49–0.60)0.84
LCI6.7±0.56.6±0.50.1 (-0.2–0.3)0.53
sRaw kPa·s1.05±0.221.06±0.190.01 (-0.10–0.09)0.91
FeNO ppb5.4±4.35.4±5.10.0 (-2.3–2.4)0.99
PM10 μg·m−324.0±1.123.3±0.80.7 (0.1–1.2)0.02
NO2 μg·m−345.4±7.341.5±5.43.9 (0.2–7.5)0.04
NOx μg·m−383.4±19.872.2±14.511.2 (1.3–21.0)0.03
  • Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FEV0.5: forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s; LCI: lung clearance index; sRaw: specific airway resistance; PM10: particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm; NOx: nitrogen oxides. #: n = 33, spirometry was successfully performed by 24 children, LCI and sRaw by 33 children and FeNO by 30 children, air pollutant data was estimated for 25 children; : n = 37, spirometry was successfully performed by 31 children, LCI and sRaw by 37 children and FeNO by 35 children, air pollutant data was estimated for 26 children.