Table 2– Effects of incense burning at home and glutathione S-transferase genotype on subcategories of asthma and wheeze
AsthmaWheeze
Lifetime asthmaCurrent asthmaMedication useLifetime wheezeCurrent wheezeNocturnal wheezeExercise wheeze
Incense burning1.05 (0.80–1.36)1.36 (1.01–2.00)1.52 (1.02–2.42)1.10 (0.88–1.37)1.07 (0.75–1.53)1.31 (0.8–2.14)1.64 (1.18–2.28)
Frequency of incense burning#
 Never1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Less than daily0.76 (0.54–1.07)1.13 (0.70–1.83)1.29 (0.72–2.30)0.92 (0.70–1.21)1.00 (0.64–1.56)1.07 (0.58–2.01)1.62 (1.09–2.41)
 Daily1.22 (0.90–1.64)1.52 (0.99–2.34)1.75 (1.03–2.96)1.21 (0.94–1.55)1.12 (0.74–1.70)1.68 (0.97–2.93)1.88 (1.29–2.74)
 p-value for trend0.200.050.030.130.600.060.001
GSTT1 null1.21 (0.95–1.56)1.43 (1.00–2.04)1.46 (1.01–2.22)1.17 (0.95–1.44)1.14 (0.81–1.60)1.14 (0.72–1.79)1.09 (0.81–1.47)
GSTM1 null0.87 (0.68–1.12)0.89 (0.63–1.27)0.84 (0.55–1.27)0.98 (0.80–1.21)0.91 (0.65–1.27)0.73 (0.47–1.16)0.90 (0.67–1.21)
GSTP1Ile/Ile1.18 (0.60–2.32)0.89 (0.37–2.11)0.72 (0.28–1.85)0.96 (0.57–1.61)0.83 (0.37–1.86)1.21 (0.37–4)1.76 (0.7–4.41)
  • Data are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Models are adjusted for age, sex, parental education, parental asthma, parental atopy, gestational age, city, maternal smoking during pregnancy and environmental tobacco smoke at home. #: average days of incense burning at home per month.