Table 1– Selected characteristics of participants in the Taiwan Children Health Study
With genotypingAll eligible participants
Subjects n37645082
Demographic information
 Males1848 (49.1)2464 (48.5)
 Age yrs12.26±0.5012.42±0.65
 Parental education# yrs
  ≤122319 (62)3201 (63.4)
  13–15740 (19.8)964 (19.1)
  ≥16679 (18.2)884 (17.5)
 Gestational age#
  ≤37335 (9.1)461 (9.3)
  >373342 (90.9)4496 (90.7)
 Parental asthma#114 (3.1)140 (2.9)
 Parental atopy#957 (26.4)1263 (25.8)
 Family income# TWD
  ≤4000001249 (35.8)1777 (37.7)
  400001–8000001408 (40.4)1853 (39.3)
  ≥810000828 (23.8)1080 (22.9)
 Active smoking#26 (0.7)37 (0.7)
 Maternal smoking during pregnancy#146 (3.9)198 (3.9)
 ETS at home#1774 (47.4)2471 (48.9)
 Incense burning at home#
  Never1326 (37.0)1724 (35.8)
  Less than daily1021 (28.5)1398 (29.0)
  Daily1237 (34.5)1699 (35.2)
Respiratory outcomes#
 Asthma
  Lifetime asthma292 (7.8)375 (7.4)
  Current asthma114 (3.1)140 (2.9)
  Medication use96 (2.6)123 (2.4)
 Wheeze
  Lifetime wheeze449 (12.0)586 (11.6)
  Current wheeze150 (4.0)186 (3.7)
  Nocturnal wheeze82 (2.2)109 (2.2)
  Exercise wheeze206 (5.5)276 (5.5)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. TWD: New Taiwan dollar; ETS: environmental tobacco smoke. #: number of subjects does not sum to total because of missing data.