Table 5– Lung function results in extreme pre-term (EP) children compared to classmate controls at 11 yrs of age
EP with BPDEP without BPDAll EPControl (All)95% CI of difference
(EP–control)
Subjects n34154952
zFEV1#-1.76±1.02-1.08±1.29-1.55±1.14-0.02±0.90-1.94–1.10***
zFEF25–75%#-2.18±1.07-1.55±1.38-1.98±1.19-0.59±1.02-1.85–0.94***
zFVC#-1.02±0.85-0.43±1.26-0.84±1.020.22±0.97-1.46–0.65***
zFEV1/FVC#-1.27±0.99-0.98±1.23-1.17±1.07-0.40±0.91-1.18–0.37***
zRV1.84±1.301.25±0.571.63±1.131.17±0.710.05–0.88*
zTLC0.16±0.410.41±0.570.25±0.660.31±0.56-0.29–0.17
zRV/TLC+1.26±1.070.86±0.861.12±1.00.44±0.800.27–1.08**
zFRCpleth0.47±1.130.17±0.720.36±1.00.16±0.89-0.20–0.60
FRCpleth-MBW mL·kg−112.7±8.812.0±6.312.4±7.98.5±5.30.8–7.1*
ZsReff§1.11±0.910.70±0.760.98±0.880.42±0.730.24–0.88**
LCI7.4±1.07.1±0.77.3±0.96.5±0.40.46–1.10***
zDL,CO-1.08±0.90-1.40±0.91-1.20±0.91-0.42±0.91-1.19–0.37*
zVA1.28±1.241.36±0.681.31±1.051.41±1.17-0.60–0.41
zDL,CO/VA-2.15±0.80-2.58±0.67-2.31±0.77-1.69±0.78-0.97–0.27**
PC20 mg·mL−10.41±2.900.39±2.640.41±2.751.72±5.310.12–0.46
FeNO ppb4.6±2.05.5±2.54.9±2.25.9±2.10.6–1.15
  • Data expressed as mean±sd Z-scores, unless otherwise stated. Data for provocative dose causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PC20) and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) are presented as geometric mean±sd and 95% CI of the geometric mean were calculated from the Loge of PC20 and exhaled NO. BPD: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; FEF25–75%: forced expiratory flow between 25–75% forced vital capacity (FVC); RV: residual volume; TLC: total lung capacity; FRCpleth: plethysmographic functional residual capacity (FRC); FRCpleth-MBW: difference in FRC measured using plethysmography and multiple breath washout; sReff: specific effective airway resistance; LCI: lung clearance index; DL,CO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; VA: alveolar volume. 95% CI of difference in bold denote statistically significant difference. #: according to 20; : according to 18; +: according to 19; §: according to 17. *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.0001.