Table 3– Group characteristics of extreme pre-term (EP) children with and without prior bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) compared to classmate controls at 11 yrs of age
EP with BPDEP without BPDAll EPControl95% CI
(EP–control)
Subjects (% boys)34 (35)15 (40)49 (37)52 (37)-18–18
Test age yrs11.2±0.411.2±0.511.2 (0.4)11.0±0.50.0–0.4*
Height cm141.5±5.7143.0±8.5142.0±6.6146.1±6.7-6.7–1.5*
Height Z#-0.47±0.92-0.29±1.08-0.41±0.970.35±0.96-1.14–0.38***
Weight kg35.5±8.738.0±8.836.3±8.739.8±8.8-7.04–0.10*
Weight Z#-0.34±1.19-0.05±1.42-0.25±1.260.43±1.05-1.14–0.22**
BMI Z#-0.13±1.330.27±1.12-0.01±1.270.35±1.08-0.82–0.11
Puberty29292929-18–18
Respiratory morbidity
 Bronchiolitis443642225–54***
 Pneumonia+19917
 Wheeze ever6227512112–48**
 Wheeze last 12 months§2972310-2–27
 Inactive asthmaƒ1513148-6–20
 Current asthma##29202713-3–28
 Hay fever ever32333330-15–20
 Eczema ever41404133-11–25
 Skin test positive61394-6–16
Medication in last 12 months
 β-agonist9 (26)3 (20)12 (25)5 (10)0–30*
 Inhaled steroids9 (26)2 (13)11 (22)6 (12)-4–26
 Antibiotics8 (24)1 (7)9 (18)2 (4)2–28*
Current medication
 β-agonist8 (24)1 (7)9 (18)4 (8)-3–24
 Inhaled steroids¶¶3 (9)2 (13)5 (10)4 (8)-9–15
  • Data presented as n (%), mean±sd or %, unless otherwise as stated. BMI: body mass index. *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.0001. #: according to Child Growth Foundation algorithms 22; : defined as having reached Tanner Stage 3 in their physical and pubic hair development 15; +: exclusion criteria for controls; §: detailed description of wheeze 3 months prior to test is given in table 3; ƒ: defined as those who had been diagnosed with asthma by a doctor but not symptomatic over past 12 months; ##: defined as currently symptomatic and/or with doctor diagnosis of asthma and on medication for past 12 months; ¶¶: flixotide, becotide or pulmicort.