Table 8– Prognostic factors for the overall survival from the initial diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ParametersHR (95% CI)p-value
Univariate Cox analysis
 Age1.016 (1.001–1.031)0.032
 Male sex0.910 (0.685–1.209)NS
 Smoking0.737 (0.568–0.956)0.021
 PFT % pred
  FVC0.976 (0.968–0.984)<0.001
  DL,CO0.978 (0.971–0.986)<0.001
  TLC0.975 (0.965–0.984)<0.001
  Macrophages1.003 (0.993–1.014)NS
  Lymphocytes0.998 (0.985–1.012)NS
  Neutrophils0.996 (0.980–1.012)NS
  Eosinophils0.979 (0.941–1.018)NS
 CRP1.073 (0.808–1.423)NS
 Steroid with/without cytotoxic agent1.529 (1.177–1.986)0.001
 Occurrence of AE#2.770 (2.132–3.599)<0.001
Multivariate Cox analysis
 Age1.017 (1.001–1.033)0.032
 PFT % pred
  FVC0.987 (0.977–0.997)0.009
  DL,CO0.985 (0.976–0.994)0.001
 Steroid with/without cytotoxic agent1.552 (1.113–2.164)0.010
 Occurrence of AE2.592 (1.888–3.560)<0.001
  • HR: hazard ratio; PFT: pulmonary function test; % pred: % predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity; DL,CO: carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung; TLC: total lung capacity; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; CRP: C-reactive protein; AE: acute exacerbation; NS: not significant. #: overall occurrence during follow up; : TLC % pred was excluded from the multivariate analysis due to the close correlation between FVC and TLC % pred (r = 0.765; p<0.001).