Table 4– Risk factors for acute exacerbation compared to no episodes of rapid deterioration (RD) at the time of initial diagnosis
ParametersHR (95% CI)p-value
Univariate Cox analysis
 Age1.021 (0.997–1.047)0.093
 Male sex0.921 (0.563–1.506)ns
 Smoking0.629 (0.407–0.972)0.037
 PFT % pred
  FVC0.975 (0.960–0.989)0.001
DL,CO0.981 (0.967–0.994)0.005
  TLC0.970 (0.953–0.987)0.001
  Macrophages0.991 (0.975–1.008)ns
  Lymphocytes1.001 (0.977–1.025)ns
  Neutrophils1.010 (0.989–1.031)ns
  Eosinophils0.994 (0.929–1.064)ns
 CRP0.786 (0.380–1.622)ns
 Steroids with/without cytotoxic agents#1.045 (0.682–1.602)ns
Multivariate Cox analysis
 Smokers0.585 (0.342–1.001)0.050
 FVC % pred0.979 (0.964–0.995)0.011
  • HR: hazard ratio; PFT: pulmonary function test; FVC: forced vital capacity; % pred: % predicted; DL,CO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; TLC: total lung capacity; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; CRP: C-reactive protein; ns: nonsignificant. #: within 30 days prior to RD; : TLC % pred was excluded from the multivariate analysis due to the close correlation between FVC % pred and TLC % pred (r = 0.765; p<0.001).