Table 2– Conditions increasing the risk for progression to tuberculosis and OR (from retrospective studies) or relative risk (RR; from prospective studies)
Condition[Ref.]OR or RR
Immune suppression
 HIV-positive and tuberculin skin test-positive71–7350–110
 AIDS74, 75110–170
 Solid organ transplantation related to immunosuppressant therapy76–7820–74
 Receiving anti-TNF-α treatment79–811.5–17
 Corticosteroids >15 mg prednisolone equivalent per day for >2–4 weeks#82, 834.9
 Haematological malignancy (leukemias, lymphomas)8416
 Carcinoma of the head or neck and lung852.5–6.3
Gastrectomy86, 872.5
Jejunoileal bypass88, 8927–63
Chronic renal failure/haemodialysis93, 9410–25
Diabetes mellitus95–982–3.6
Excessive alcohol use104, 1053
Underweight106, 1072.0–2.6
Age <5 yrs (table 3)292–5
  • Level of evidence generally B or C. TNF: tumour necrosis factor. #: the adjusted RR of corticosteroids for the development of tuberculosis has not been convincingly established. Table adapted and updated from various sources 17, 22, 70.