Table 2– Association between frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in antioxidants and forced expiratory volume in 1 s change# in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
More than twice a weekTwice a week or lessp-value
Olives (black)1.14 (0.93–1.36)-0.54 (-1.02– -0.43)0.0001
Spinach1.15 (0.95–1.35)-0.85 (-1.10– -0.60)0.0001
Mushrooms1.03 (0.68–1.23)-0.93 (-1.15– -0.65)0.12
Beet1.09 (0.86–1.32)-0.90 (-1.15– -0.66)0.07
Broccoli1.14 (0.89–1.13)-0.55 (-0.76– -0.21)0.0005
Radicchio1.11 (0.91–1.30)-0.91 (-1.17– -0.66)0.0001
Strawberries1.19 (0.97–1.14)-0.64 (-0.9– -0.37)0.005
Oranges1.00 (0.76–1.23)-1.01 (-1.12– -0.77)0.0001
Plums1.09 (0.88–1.29)-0.89 (-1.11– -0.64)0.0001
Grapes (yellow)0.57 (-0.29–0.84)-0.90 (-1.23– -0.57)0.0003
Tangerines0.35 (-0.38–1.32)-0.41 (-1.12–0.32)0.1
  • Data are presented as mean (95% confidence interval). #: change in mean percentage predicted value per 6 months; : Mann–Whitney U-test.