Table 4– Clinical probability of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) diagnosis and suggested diagnostic work-up according to the likelihood of the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by Doppler echocardiography (table 2), occurrence of symptoms and risk factors, and associated conditions (table 3)
PH likelihood by echocardiographySymptomsRisk factors/ACPAH probabilityWork-up
YesYesLowEchocardiographic follow-up
YesNoLowOther causes
PossibleNoNoIntermediateEchocardiographic follow-up
YesYesIntermediateRight-heart catheterisation
YesNoIntermediateEchocardiographic follow-up#
LikelyYesYes/noHighRight-heart catheterisation
NoYes/noHighRight-heart catheterisation
  • AC: associated conditions. #: consider also other causes and, if symptoms at least moderate, also right heart catheterisation.