Table 2– Demographic and clinical characteristics of 1,027 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, stratified by non-extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB and XDR-TB status, Latvia, 2000–2004#
Non-XDR-TBXDR-TBp-value
Cases n97948
Demographic characteristic
 Sex
  Male746 (76.2)34 (70.8)0.40
  Female233 (23.8)14 (29.2)Ref
 Age group yrs
  <187 (0.8)1 (2.1)
  18–2466 (6.7)6 (12.5)
  25–34206 (21.0)8 (16.7)
  35–44284 (29.0)17 (35.4)
  45–54240 (24.5)13 (27.0)
  >55176 (18.0)3 (6.3)
 Age yrs
  <45563 (57.5)32 (66.7)0.21
  >45416 (42.5)16 (32.3)Ref
 Location
  Riga, Latvia333 (34.0)22 (45.8)0.09
  Other646 (66.0)26 (54.2)Ref
 Birthplace
  Latvia859 (87.7)40 (83.3)0.37
  Other120 (12.3)8 (16.7)Ref
 Housing
  Tenant212 (21.6)13 (27.1)0.37
  Owner767 (78.4)35 (72.9)Ref
 Employment
  Student/retired270 (27.6)18 (37.5)0.14
  Unemployed547 (55.9)26 (54.2)0.81
  Employed162 (16.5)4 (8.3)Ref
 Living situation
  With ≥2 persons362 (37.0)19 (39.5)0.48
  With 1 person292 (29.8)12 (25.0)0.61
  Alone210 (21.4)9 (18.8)Ref
  Missing115 (11.8)8 (16.7)
 History of incarceration
  None665 (68.0)30 (62.5)0.43
  Any313 (32.0)18 (37.5)Ref
  Unknown1 (0.1)
 Past/current heavy alcohol use
  None432 (44.1)17 (35.4)0.23
  Ever547 (55.9)31 (64.6)Ref
 Injection drug use ever
  No907 (92.6)43 (89.5)0.58
  Yes45 (4.6)3 (6.3)Ref
  Unknown27 (2.8)2 (4.1)
 Started treatment while incarcerated
  No904 (92.3)45 (93.8)0.72
  Yes75 (7.7)3 (6.2)Ref
Clinical characteristics
 BMI kg·m−2
  Males20.6 (19.0–22.3)21.1 (19.3–22.2)0.42§
  Females20.3 (18.6–22.5)19.7 (17.2–22.4)0.41§
  Males <18·5137/728 (18.8)7/34 (20.6)0.79
  Females <18·5+54/228 (23.6)4/14 (28.6)0.67
 HIV status
  Infected29 (3.0)3 (6.2)0.2
  Uninfected945 (96.5)45 (93.8)Ref
  Unknown5 (0.5)0 (0)
 Category of MDR-TB
  Previously treated for MDR100 (10.2)16 (33.3)<0.001
  Previously treated for TB with only first-line drugs520 (53.1)12 (25.0)<0.001
  Never treated for TB359 (36.7)20 (41.7)Ref
 Site of MDR-TB
  Pulmonary and extrapulmonary57 (5.8)0 (0)0.08
  Pulmonary970 (94.2)48 (100)Ref
 Radiological findings at onset
  Bilateral cavitary208 (21.3)15 (31.3)0.10
  Unilateral cavitary458 (46.8)23 (47.9)0.88
  Non-cavitary313 (31.9)10 (20.8)Ref
 Smear positive at treatment onset494 (51.2)32 (66.7)0.04
 Colony count of initial culture among positive
  3–4413 (54.1)28 (65.1)0.16
  1–2351 (45.9)15 (34.9)Ref
 Drugs to which M. tuberculosis resistant at treatment onset5 (4–7)8 (7–9)<0.001§
  at treatment initiation
   2–4285 (29.1)
   5229 (23.4)
   6186 (19.0)6 (12.5)
   7127 (13.0)13 (27.1)
   8103 (10.5)10 (20.8)
   945 (4.6)10 (20.8)
   104 (0.4)9 (18.8)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. M. tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Ref: reference. #: year 2000 for civilians only; : 18 unknown; +: 5 unknown; §: Wilcoxon rank-sum test.