Table 1– Baseline demographics, comorbidities, severity of the disease, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings on admission, microbiology and antibiotic therapy data, and outcomes of the study population
CharacteristicStudy population
Subjects n2003
Demographics
Males1255 (63)
Age yrs64.0±17.9
Age >65 yrs1028 (51)
Comorbidities
Congestive heart failure352 (18)
COPD595 (30)
Diabetes mellitus340 (17)
Cerebrovascular accident254 (13)
Liver disease72 (4)
Immunosuppression#270 (13)
Severity on admission
Altered mental status191 (10)
Admission to ICU236 (12)
PSI risk class
I239 (12)
II361 (18)
III496 (25)
IV720 (36)
V187 (9)
CRB-65 score
0732 (37)
1911 (45)
2322 (16)
336 (1.9)
42 (0.1)
Physical findings
Respiratory rate ≥30 breaths·min−1395 (20)
Alteration of gas exchange679 (34)
Hypotension+89 (4)
Heart rate ≥125 beats·min−1266 (13)
Laboratory values
Arterial pH <7.35105 (5)
Sodium <130 mmol·L−1104 (5)
Haematocrit <30%108 (5)
BUN >30 mg·dL−1293 (15)
Radiology findings on CXR
Multilobar involvement530 (26)
Pleural effusion363 (26)
Microbiology
Pathogen isolated459 (23)
Mixed infection43 (2)
Streptococcus pneumoniae208 (10)
Haemophilus influenzae71 (3.5)
Staphylococcus aureus57 (2.8)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa26 (1.3)
Moraxella catarrhalis25 (1.2)
Legionella spp.20 (1)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae18 (0.9)
Antibiotic used
Ceftriaxone814 (41)
Azithromycin599 (30)
Levofloxacin595 (30)
Clarithromycin363 (18)
Cefotaxime182 (9)
Amoxicillin/clavulanate158 (8)
Ampicillin/sulbactam105 (5)
Empiric antibiotic therapy
Compliant to local guidelines1,698 (85)
Monotherapy810 (40)
Levofloxacin388 (19)
Double therapy1,193 (60)
Beta-lactam plus macrolide750 (37)
Beta-lactam plus fluoroquinolone100 (5)
Switched from i.v. to p.o. antibiotic1,370 (68)
Outcome
Time to clinical stability days3.3±1.7
Length of stay in the hospital days9.5±9.6
  • Data are presented as n (%) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU: intensive care unit; PSI: pneumonia severity index; CRB-65: confusion, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths·min−1, low blood pressure (systolic value <90 mmHg or diastolic value ≤60 mmHg) and age ≥65 yrs; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CXR: chest radiograph. #: cancer, HIV, chronic steroid use; : arterial oxygen tension <60 mmHg, arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction <300 mmHg or oxygen saturation <90%; +: systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg.