Table 4– Risk of respiratory diseases and sensitisation to aeroallergens associated with bronchiolitis in swimming infants and their controls
ControlsSwimming infants
Bronchiolitis n (%)OR (95% CI)p-valueBronchiolitis n (%)OR (95% CI)p-value
NoYesUnadjustedAdjustedNoYesUnadjustedAdjusted
Subjects n1795612471
Wheezing28 (15.6)12 (21.4)1.47 (0.69–3.13)1.29 (0.47–3.54)0.6218 (14.5)18 (25.4)2.00 (0.96–4.16)2.49 (1.13–5.49)0.03
Asthma11 (6.2)4 (7.1)1.18 (0.36–3.85)0.91 (0.23–3.70)0.905 (4.0)11 (15.5)4.36 (1.45–13.1)8.27 (2.30–29.6)0.001
Allergic rhinitis16 (8.9)9 (16.1)1.95 (0.81–4.70)2.08 (0.79–5.40)0.1413 (10.5)14 (19.7.)2.10 (0.92–4.76)4.65 (1.42–15.2)0.01
Hay fever19 (10.6)12 (21.4)1.40 (0.58–3.41)0.96 (0.34–2.70)0.946 (4.8)11 (15.5)3.61 (1.27–10.2)4.70 (1.52–14.5)0.007
Nasal IgE
Pollen#24 (15.7)3 (6.4)0.39 (0.11–1.38)0.57 (0.15–2.10)0.4014 (12.8)13 (20.6)1.86 (0.80–4.30)2.63 (1.01–6.80)0.05
HDM#15 (9.8)7 (14.9)1.62 (0.62–4.25)2.05 (0.62–6.75)0.249 (8.3)21 (33.3 )2.59 (1.02–6.55)2.86 (1.07–7.80)0.04
Cat#11 (7.2)3 (6.4)0.89 (0.24–3.32)0.90 (0.20–4.18)0.908 (7.3)7 (11.1)1.56 (0.54–5.54)1.26 (0.40–3.96)0.69
  • Outcomes are defined in table 1. Bronchiolitis was diagnosed at a mean±sd age of 9.6±5.9 months in infant swimmers and 9.3±5.5 months in controls. The prevalences of respiratory diseases and sensitisation to aeroallergens among children who never developed bronchiolitis did not differ significantly between swimming infants and their controls (p>0.07 for all; Chi-squared test). OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; Ig: immunoglobulin; HDM: house dust mite. #: a total of 153 and 47 controls and 109 and 63 swimming infants, respectively, who did not or did develop bronchiolitis, were tested.