Table 3– Associations between exposure to air pollutants and health outcomes#
Exercised-induced asthmaAsthma in the last 1 yrLifetime asthmaSensitisation to pollensRhinoconjunctivitis in the last 1 yrLifetime allergic rhinitisEczema in the last 1 yrLifetime eczema
Prevalence8.85.39.812.312.220.112.826.1
Pollutants
Benzene1.32 (1.03–1.82)*1.36 (1.00–1.96)*1.25 (1.08–1.43)**1.24 (1.00–1.52)*1.05 (0.84–1.27)1.17 (0.99–1.37)1.11 (1.00–1.28)*1.05 (0.95–1.16)
VOC1.20 (0.95–1.51)1.19 (0.77–1.89)1.17 (0.95–1.47)1.18 (0.96–1.44)1.02 (0.83–1.24)1.08 (0.91–1.30)1.07 (0.98–1.26)1.02 (0.94–1.09)
SO21.27 (1.11–1.53)**1.29 (1.03–1.71)*1.26 (1.11–1.42)***1.02 (0.83–1.31)1.03 (0.81–1.29)1.13 (0.95–1.34)1.00 (0.83–1.25)0.95 (0.81–1.12)
PM101.24 (1.01–1.48)*1.31 (0.92–1.95)1.28 (1.06–1.51)**1.35 (1.09–1.68)**1.12 (0.93–1.33)1.20 (1.01–1.44)*1.15 (1.03–1.33)*1.13 (1.01–1.24)*
NO21.05 (0.72–1.63)1.37 (0.85–2.13)1.09 (0.85–1.39)1.04 (0.82–1.36)1.09 (0.88–1.34)1.14 (0.92–1.36)1.12 (0.94–1.37)1.23 (1.04–1.42)**
NOx1.25 (1.11–1.46)***1.32 (1.00–1.89)*1.08 (0.96–1.38)1.01 (0.85–1.25)1.04 (0.82–1.32)1.02 (0.88–1.32)1.11 (1.00–1.26)*1.06 (1.00–1.18)*
CO1.29 (1.09–1.53)**1.45 (1.02–2.04)*1.21 (1.03–1.54)*1.03 (0.84–1.24)1.04 (0.86–1.29)1.05 (0.89–1.30)1.14 (1.01–1.29)*1.08 (1.00–1.21)*
  • Data are presented as % or OR (95% CI). ORs obtained using a marginal model adjusted for age, sex, older siblings, family history of allergy, parental education, mother's ethnic origin, smoking at home, mould or dampness at home, natural gas used for heating, cooking or for water-heater at home, and pets at home, with an exchangeable working correlation structure using the community as a stratum. ORs were calculated per increment for the interquartile range (1.1 μg·m−3, 25.2 μg·m−3, 5 μg·m−3, 10.5 μg·m−3, 18.5 μg·m−3, 52.1 μg·m−3 and 199 μg·m−3 for benzene, VOC, SO2, PM10, NO2, NOx and CO, respectively). VOC: volatile organic compounds; PM10: particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm; NOx: nitrogen oxides. #: 4,907 children residing at their current address for at least 3 yrs; *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001.