Table 2—

Characteristics of the groups as defined by ciliary ultrastructure in the 820 patients with feasible transmission electron microscopy analysis

NormalHeterogeneous defectsMain defectQuestionable ultrastructure
Patients533 (65)15 (1.8)245 (29)27 (3.3)
Abnormal cilia %
Sex ratio F/M0.680.360.780.8ns
Children/adults ratio1.090.872.06#1.7<0.001
Situs inversus28 (5.2)1 (6.7)78 (31.8)#2 (7.4)<0.0001
Airway infections
 Isolated upper239 (44.8)6 (40)1 (0.4)4 (14.8)
 Isolated lower241 (45.2)7 (46.7)1 (0.4)5 (18.5)
 Sinopulmonary53 (10)2 (13.3)243 (99.2)18 (66.7)<0.001
  • Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise indicated. IQR: interquartile range; F/M: female/male; ND: not determined; ns: nonsignificant. p-values are for global comparison between the four groups; if p<0.05, two-by-two comparisons were performed. #: indicates that only this group was significantly different from the other groups; : indicates that the two groups were not different from each other but were significantly different from the other two groups.