Table 1—

Distribution of selected characteristics of 763 parent–child pairs

Baseline characteristics
 Maternal age yrs30.0±4.0
 Gestational age at baseline weeks17.7±6.7
 Residential municipality
  Neyagawa City457 (59.9)
  Other than Neyagawa City306 (40.1)
 Family income ¥·yr−1
  <4,000,000211 (27.7)
  4,000,000−5,999,999313 (41.0)
  ≥6,000,000239 (31.3)
 Maternal education yrs
  <13212 (27.8)
  13–14329 (43.1)
  ≥15222 (29.1)
 Paternal education yrs
  <13289 (37.9)
  13–14127 (16.6)
  ≥15347 (45.5)
 Maternal history of asthma80 (10.5)
 Maternal history of atopic eczema120 (15.7)
 Maternal history of allergic rhinitis256 (33.6)
 Paternal history of asthma64 (8.4)
 Paternal history of atopic eczema72 (9.4)
 Paternal history of allergic rhinitis143 (18.7)
 Changes in diet in the previous 1 month
  Never or seldom212 (27.8)
  Slight336 (44.0)
  Substantial215 (28.2)
 Season when data were collected
  Spring241 (31.6)
  Summer127 (16.6)
  Autumn167 (21.9)
  Winter228 (29.9)
Characteristics at the post-natal assessment
 Maternal smoking during pregnancy97 (12.7)
 One or more older siblings381 (49.9)
 Male sex403 (52.8)
 Birth weight g3071.0±415.5
 Household smoking in same room as infant195 (25.6)
 Breastfeeding duration months
  <6189 (24.8)
  ≥6574 (75.2)
 Age of infant at third survey months
  16−19263 (34.5)
  20370 (48.5)
  21−24130 (17.0)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%).