Table 1—

Clinical characteristics before and after 2 months of treatment

Culture-positive groupCulture-negative groupp-valueOR (95% CI)
Subjects 3327
Age yrs 58.8±14.356.2±18.10.5322.6 (-5.7–11.0)
Males 26 (79)21 (78)0.9251.06 (0.31–3.64)
Underlying comorbid conditions # 29 (88)20 (74)0.1972.54 (0.66–9.83)
Before treatment
 Clinical symptoms
 Respiratory symptoms26 (79)21 (78)0.9251.06 (0.31–3.64)
 Constitutional symptoms+21 (64)17 (63)0.9571.03 (0.36–2.96)
 Sputum smear grading: 3–420 (61)20 (74)0.2710.54 (0.18–1.63)
 Any drug resistance8 (24)4 (15)0.5191.84 (0.49–6.94)
  Resistant to isoniazid3 (9)1 (4)
  Resistant to rifampicin0 (0)0 (0)
  Resistant to ethambutol1 (3)0 (0)
 Chest radiographic findings
  Bilateral involvement25 (76)16 (59)0.1722.15 (0.71–6.49)
  Cavitation on chest film15 (45)14 (52)0.6220.77 (0.28–2.15)
After treatment
 Sputum smear grading: 3–49 (27)1 (4)0.0179.75 (1.15–82.80)
 Clinical response
  No radiographic improvement24 (73)5 (19)<0.00111.73 (3.41–40.42)
  Incomplete remission of symptoms18 (55)4 (15)0.0036.90 (1.95–24.42)
  Receiving directly observed therapy18 (55)20 (74)0.1180.42 (0.14–1.26)
 Regimen modifications
  Non-continuous use of INH§13 (39)1 (4)0.00216.90 (2.04–140.21)
  Non-continuous use of RIF10 (33)1 (4)0.01611.30 (1.34–95.20)
  Non-continuous use of EMB12 (36)4 (15)0.0813.29 (0.92–11.78)
  Non-continuous use of PZA13 (39)5 (19)0.0792.86 (0.87–9.46)
 Treatment outcome
  Cure/complete24 (73)25 (93)0.0910.21 (0.04–1.09)
  Treatment failure1 (3)0 (0)1.000
  Death6 (18)0 (0)0.028
  Default1 (3)0 (0)1.000
  Transfer out1 (3)2 (7)0.5830.39 (0.03–4.56)
  • Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. Data for age are presented as mean difference. INH: isoniazid; RIF: rifampicin; EMB: ethambutol; PZA: pyrazinamide. #: including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines), diabetes mellitus, cancer, alcoholism (defined as a patient with history of alcohol abuse or dependence over the past year before receiving antituberculous treatment), liver cirrhosis, autoimmune disease, chronic kidney disease (baseline serum creatinine level >2 mg·dL−1); : including cough, sputum production, haemoptysis, dyspnoea and chest pain; +: including fever (>37.4°C), weight loss (5% reduction over the past 6 months), anorexia, night sweat and general malaise; §: denotes administration of <56 doses of the drug within 8 weeks.