Table 3—

Demographics at baseline for all participants, and for those who had action/had no action

DemographicAllHad actionNo actionp-value
Participants n17845133
Age yrs69.6±8.571.2±7.268.8±8.80.03
Male82 (46)20 (44)62 (47)ns
Marital status
 Never married11 (6)4 (9)7 (5)
 Married107 (60)26 (58)81 (61)ns
 Widowed/divorced60 (34)15 (33)45 (34)
Lives alone61 (34)18 (40)43 (32)ns
Smoker#64 (38)14 (32)50 (41)ns
Carstairs deprivation score-0.29 (2.9)-0.32 (3.0)-0.49 (2.7)0.10
Clinical and health status
 FEV1 L1.03±0.461.05±0.491.02±0.46ns
 FEV1 % pred41.6±17.443.5±18.041.0±17.2ns
 FVC L2.17±0.772.15±0.772.17±0.76ns
 FVC % pred59.0±18.459.0±18.859.0±18.3ns
 COPD prior admissions1.15±1.10.9±0.91.23±1.10.06
 SGRQ symptoms75.8±17.372.4±16.877±17.40.13
 SGRQ activity limitation83.4±17.786.3±12.582.4±19.00.12
 SGRQ impact56.1±21.858.3±20.755.4±22.2ns
 SGRQ total score67.5±17.868.9±15.267±18.6ns
 VAS4.8±1.84.6±1.74.9±1.8ns
 EQ-5D53±24.853.3±22.452.9±25.6ns
Housing
 Social housing75 (42)18 (40)57 (43)ns
 Central heating150 (84)10 (22)18 (14)ns
 Energy efficiency (NHER)5.3 (1.8)4.8 (2.1)5.5 (1.7)0.03
 EAFC £594 (309)705 (417)557 (253)0.03
  • Data are presented as n (%) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. ns: nonsignificant; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SGRQ: St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; VAS: visual analogue scale; NHER: National Home Energy Rating; EAFC: estimated annual fuel costs to heat according to housing guidelines. #: 11 participants had no saliva for cotinine analyses; : admissions in 12 months prior to entry to study.