Table 1—

Comparison of characteristics and interventions between patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who died and survived

VariableDiedSurvivedp-value
Subjects n4961
Demographic
 Age yrs26±22.924.1±18.30.64
 Male sex27/49 (55.1)37/60 (61.7)0.49
History
 Smoking6/43 (14)4/52 (7.7)0.34
 Alcohol2/43 (4.7)4/52 (7.7)0.69
 Drug abuse2/44 (4.5)6/56 (10.7)0.46
 Diabetes3/46 (6.5)2/55 (3.6)0.66
 Respiratory disease1/46 (2.2)6/55 (10.9)0.12
 Heart disease5/46 (10.9)2/55 (3.6)0.24
 Cancer2/46 (4.3)0/55 (0)0.21
 Immunosuppression1/46 (2.2)4/55 (7.3)0.37
 Liver disease1/46 (2.2)1/55 (1.8)1.00
Risk factors for MRSA12/44 (27.3)20/53 (37.7)0.28
 Previous antibiotics1/44 (2.3)4/53 (7.5)0.37
 Previous MRSA infection/colonisation2/44 (4.5)2/53 (3.8)1.00
 Relatives with MRSA5/44 (11.4)6/53 (11.3)1.00
 Contact sports2/44 (4.5)2/53 (3.8)1.00
Reason of hospitalisation
 CAP36/43 (83.7)32/51 (61.7)0.22
 Shock1/43 (2.3)4/51 (7.8)
 Bone-joint infection1/43 (2.3)3/51 (5.9)
 SSTI0/43 (0)2/51 (3.9)
 Other#5/43 (11.6)10/51 (19.6)
Clinical characteristics
 Secondary CAP5/49 (10.2)18/61 (29.5)0.013
 Antibiotics before admission7/49 (14.3)7/61 (11.5)0.66
 Duration of symptoms prior to hospitalisation days4.4±3.45.3±2.70.19
 Influenza like symptoms22/39 (56.4)15/52 (28.8)0.008
 Fever33/40 (82.5)44/47 (93.6)0.18
 Cough27/43 (62.8)27/50 (54)0.39
 Chest pain4/40 (10)13/48 (27.1)0.043
 Gastrointestinal symptoms9/42 (21.4)7/48 (14.6)0.40
 Rash10/43 (23.3)4/50 (8)0.04
 Confusion/lethargy6/37 (16.2)4/42 (9.5)0.50
 Shock31/37 (83.8)18/38 (47.4)0.001
 Tachypnoea28/30 (93.3)28/31 (90.3)1.00
 Airway haemorrhage14/38 (36.8)8/39 (20.5)0.11
 Severe CAP47/47 (100)38/52 (73.1)<0.001
Radiographical findings
 Unilobar infiltrates10/42 (21.4)13/50 (26)0. 43
 Multilobar infiltrates32/42 (78.6)37/50 (74)0. 43
 Pleural effusion9/44 (20.5)24/52 (46.2)0.008
 Necrotising pneumonia28/33 (84.8)23/33 (69.7)0.14
Laboratory findings
 Proven influenza10/33 (30.3)6/42 (14.3)0.09
 Leukopenia19/24 (79.2)7/34 (20.6)<0.001
 Thrombocytopenia11/13 (84.6)10/18 (55.6)0.13
 Bacteremia31/41 (75.6)41/52 (78.8)0.71
Interventions
 Admission to ICU47/48 (97.9)31/54 (57.4)<0.001
 Mechanical ventilation34/38 (89.5)21/44 (47.7)<0.001
 Glycopeptides/linezolid before culture16/39 (41)17/46 (37)0.70
 Appropriate empiric therapy16/33 (48.5)21/46 (45.7)0.80
 Treatment changes13/25 (52)29/43 (67.4)0.21
Adjunctive therapy21/38 (55.3)19/27 (70.4)0.22
 ECMO3/38 (7.9)9/27 (33.3)0.02
 Activated protein C4/38 (10.5)3/27 (11.1)1.00
 IVIG2/38 (5.3)4/27 (14.8)0.22
 Drainage/surgery8/38 (21.1)4/27 (14.8)0.75
Complications
 ARDS15/36 (41.7)4/45 (8.9)0.001
 DVT0/36 (0)4/44 (9.1)0.12
 Pneumocele/pneumothorax5/36 (13.9)5/44 (11.4)0.75
 Acidosis5/36 (13.9)1/44 (2.3)0.09
 DIC6/36 (16.7)1/44 (2.3)0.042
 Multi-organ failure25/36 (69.4)10/44 (22.7)<0.001
Outcomes
 Duration of hospitalisation days8.3±11.738.1±25<0.001
 Duration of ICU stay days6.8±9.718.9±13.60.003
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n/N available (%), unless otherwise stated. SSTI: skin and soft tissue infection; ICU: intensive care unit; ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; IVIG: intravenous immunoglobulins; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; DVT: deep vain thrombosis; DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulation. #: including DVT, meningitis, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, fever and noncutaneous abscesses; : including heparin, corticosteroids, haemofiltration, transfusions and surgical procedures. The bold entries refer to values of statistical significance.