Table 2—

The TORCH(Towards a Revolution in COPD Health) trial: exacerbation rates by prior use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or long-acting β-agonist (LABA)

PlaceboSalmeterolFPSFC
Overall#
 Estimated rate1.130.970.930.88
 Ratio versus placebo0.85 (0.78–0.93)0.82 (0.76–0.89)0.75 (0.69–0.81)
Prior use of ICS
 Estimated rate1.431.221.140.99
 Ratio versus placebo0.85 (0.76–0.96)0.79 (0.71–0.89)0.69 (0.62–0.77)
No prior use of ICS+
 Estimated rate0.880.750.760.73
 Ratio versus placebo0.86 (0.76–0.97)0.87 (0.77–0.99)0.83 (0.73–0.94)
Prior use of LABA§
 Estimated rate1.321.141.140.98
 Ratio versus placebo0.86 (0.76–0.99)0.87 (0.76–0.99)0.74 (0.65–0.85)
No prior use of LABAƒ
 Estimated rate1.030.850.820.78
 Ratio versus placebo0.83 (0.74–0.92)0.80 (0.72–0.89)0.75 (0.68–0.84)
  • Ratios are presented with 95% confidence intervals. FP: fluticasone propionate; SFC: salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate. #: n = 6,112; : n = 2,976; +: n = 2,984; §: n = 2,264; ƒ: n = 3,654.