Table 1—

The TORCH(Towards a Revolution in COPD Health) trial: summary of comparisons of time to each event

Hazard ratio (95% CI)
SAL versus placeboFP versus placeboSFC versus placebo
First exacerbation0.90 (0.82–0.98)0.90 (0.82–0.98)0.84 (0.77–0.91)
Second exacerbation0.98 (0.88–1.09)0.91 (0.82–1.01)0.89 (0.80–0.99)
Third exacerbation0.77 (0.67–0.87)0.90 (0.80–1.01)0.77 (0.68–0.87)
Fourth exacerbation0.88 (0.75–1.04)0.96 (0.82–1.11)0.85 (0.72–0.99)
Fifth exacerbation0.91 (0.75–1.11)0.80 (0.66–0.96)0.85 (0.70–1.03)
  • SAL: salmeterol; FP: fluticasone propionate; SFC: salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate. Hazard ratios were calculated using the gap time model reported by Prentice et al. 15.