Table 2—

Treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD)

MedicineQuality of evidenceRecommendation
SurfactantSurfactant has been given to infants with evolving or established BPD only in nonrandomised trials (low)Further studies are required
CorticosteroidsCorticosteroids after age 3 weeks reduce oxygen dependence and late rescue steroid therapy, but have short-term adverse effects (high)Corticosteroids should not be routinely used, but reserved for infants who cannot be weaned from mechanical ventilationUse lowest and shortest dose possible
DiureticsDespite short-term improvements in lung mechanics, diuretics do not show subsequent benefit in BPD treatment (high)Diuretics should not be used routinely, but reserved for infants with fluid overload
BronchodilatorsAdministration in infants with BPD improves lung mechanics (moderate)Bronchodilators should probably be used in wheezing infants, but only continued if there is clinical improvement
Pulmonary vasodilatorsPulmonary vasodilators decrease pulmonary artery pressure, and iNO may improve oxygenation (low)There is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of pulmonary vasodilators or iNO in infants with BPD
  • iNO: inhaled nitric oxide.