Table 1—

Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)

First author [ref.]Setting/patient group selectionSubjects nAge yrsSex M/F nFEV1 % pred#BMI kg·m−2FFMI kg·m−2BMD measurement/ interpretationOsteopeniaOsteoporosis
FØrli 19Patients with advanced pulmonary disease considered for lung transplantation and referred to the Dept of Thoracic Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway405219/211919.014.8BMD at LS and FN by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.LS 33%, FN 45%; LS and FN combined 38%LS 48%, FN 48%; LS and FN combined: 59%
Sabit 3Not specified, UK756542/3356.727.617.5BMD at lumbar spine and hip by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.Not reported24%
Vrieze 20Rehabilitation Centre of the University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands1156062/5343.426.417.3Calcaneal QUS; T-scores. Interpretation of T-scores according to WHO.40.9%8.7%
JØrgensen 21Respiratory outpatient clinic at H:S Bispebjerg Hospital546314/4032.1NANABMD LS and FN; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.29.6%40.7%
Mineo 22Patients selected for lung volume reduction surgery7061Males only1.06 L22.9NABMD total body, LS and left hip by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.35%49%
Bolton 12Primary care and respiratory outpatients before pulmonary rehabilitation816643/384424.016.2BMD total body, LS and hip by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.LS 38%, hip 52%LS 27%, hip 20%; LS and hip combined 32%
Karadag 23Outpatient clinic of the Dept of Chest Diseases, Aydin, Turkey2863Males only4325.0NABMD at LS and hip by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.LS 42%, hip: 67%LS 35%, hip: 10%, LS and hip combined: 40%
Dubois 24Outpatients of the pulmonary disease clinic of the Reinier de Graaf Groep, Delft and Voorburg, the Netherlands8665Males only6624.9NABMD at LS, total hip and FN by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.LS 27%, TH 31%, FN 34%LS 21%, TH 22%, FN 28%
Katsura 25Outpatient Clinic, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Medical Centre, Tokyo2072Females only5022.0NABMD at total body and LS. Definition: osteoporosis lumbar BMD <70% of the young adult mean.Not reported50%
Tschopp 26Patients accepted for lung transplantation at the University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland1648NA+,§NA+,§20.7NABMD FN, wards triangle and LS by DXA. T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.Not reported69%
Dimai 27Patients from the pneumology unit at the University Hospital of the Graz Medical School, Graz, Austria7165Males onlyNS25.8NABMD distal forearm of the non-dominant arm using peripheral quantitative computed tomography; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.42%28%
Incalzi 28Patients admitted to the respiratory ward of the University Hospital Rome, Rome, Italy, for an exacerbation of COPD. Studied after resolution of their acute exacerbation1047168/36NS26.3NABMD LS and FN by DXA; T-scores. Interpretation according to WHO.NA60%
Aris 29Patients on the waiting list for lung transplantation and went to the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, for evaluation; and post transplantation patients who came to University of North Carolina, for follow-up15537/82322NABMD LS, non-dominant FN and total body. Interpretation according to WHO#NA40%
  • M: male; F: female; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted; BMI: body mass index; FFMI: fat-free mass index; BMD: bone mineral density; LS: lumbar spine; FN: femoral neck; DXA: dual-energy absorptiometry; WHO: World Health Organization; QUS: quantitative ultrasound; NA: not assessed; TH: total hip; NS: not shown. #: FEV1 is in % predicted, with the exception of the data for Mineo 22; : information provided by the author (by e-mail); +: for total group (not for COPD patients only); §: Not provided by the author.