Table 1—

Subject characteristics by categories of forced expiratory volume in 1 s(FEV1) decline in the Swiss study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA)

MalesFemales
Non-fast FEV1 declinersFast FEV1 declinersp-value#Non-fast FEV1 declinersFast FEV1 declinersp-value#
Subjects n20166002121742
Age yrs50±1156±10<0.00150±1157±10<0.001
Weight kg81.0±12.183.3±13.1<0.00165.8±12.167.8±13.2<0.001
Weight change kg+5.5±6.1+6.3±6.590.003+5.1±5.9+6.0±6.4<0.001
Weight change % baseline+7.3±8.1+8.2±8.20.026+8.4±9.1+9.6±9.90.03
Weight change categories
 Lost329 (16.3)81 (13.5)0.165357 (16.8)100 (13.5)0.02
 Gained ≤5%499 (24.7)145 (24.2)414 (19.5)155 (20.9)
 Gained ≤9%437 (21.7)119 (19.8)445 (21.0)133 (17.9)
 Gained ≤14%397 (19.7)133 (22.2)412 (19.4)148 (20.0)
 Gained >14%354 (17.6)122 (20.3)493 (23.2)206 (27.8)
 BMI kg·m−226.2±3.627.5±4.0<0.00124.6±4.425.8±5.0<0.001
Associated conditions
 Diabetes3.36.00.0031.61.60.979
 Hypertension16.224.2<0.00112.618.9<0.001
 Cardiac disease6.113.5<0.0014.05.10.198
 Hormonal therapy350 (16.5)168 (22.6)<0.001
 Low education2.75.0<0.0017.011.9<0.001
Smoking status
 Current smoker26.130.2<0.00121.525.50.030
 Never-smoker38.528.351.946.8
 Lifetime smoking for ever-smokers pack-yrs1240, 20±21430, 28±28<0.0011021, 14±15395, 20±20<0.001
Physical activity
 Adequately active %+697 (34.6)187 (31.2)0.301524 (24.7)171 (23.1)0.651
PFTs
 Baseline§
  FEV1 % pred106±14107±160.053107±14113±17<0.001
  FEV1/FVC ratio %79±776±8<0.00181±778±7<0.001
 Follow-up
  FEV1 % pred107±1491±16<0.001111±1499±17<0.001
  FEV1/FVC ratio75±769±9<0.00177±672±8<0.001
  FEV1/FVC ratio <0.717.446.0<0.00112.836.1<0.001
  Modified GOLD 2–4ƒ28 (1.4)97 (16.6)<0.00114 (0.7)57 (7.9)<0.001
  Restricted##8 (0.5)13 (2.2)<0.0012 (0.1)9 (1.2)<0.001
  FEV1 decline mL·yr−127±2482±24<0.00121±1861±20<0.001
  • Unless otherwise indicated, data are presented as: mean±sd; n (%); %; or n, mean±sd. Characteristics are those at SAPALDIA 2 (2002), unless otherwise stated; n = 5,479. BMI: body mass index; PFTs: pulmonary function tests; % pred: % predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. #: unpaired t-test or Chi-squared test; : based on self-reporting; +: exercise ≥2–3 times per week and sweaty or breathless for ≥1 h·week−1; §: 1991 data; ƒ: FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7 and FEV1 <80% pred (without bronchodilators); ##: FEV1/FVC ratio ≥0.7 and FVC <80% pred.