Table 3—

Admission criteria in the high dependency unit: moderate- to high-risk patients

Pre-operative comorbidities and functional status
 Coronary artery disease (angina pectoris, prior myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularisation)
 Cardiac insufficiency (left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, history of heart failure)
 Cardiac arythmias or heart conduction block
 Renal dysfunction (plasma creatinine >220 mg·dL−1)
 Symptomatic peripheral arterial or cerebrovascular disease
 Severe COPD (FEV1 <50% pred)
 Anticipated need for noninvasive ventilation (e.g. central or obstructive sleep apnoea)
 Liver dysfunction (Child–Turcotte–Pugh score class A and or MELD score >8)#
 Maximal VO2 max <15 mL·kg−1·min−1
 Pneumonectomy, bilobectomy; bilateral lung resection
 Extended lung resection involving the diaphragm, pericardium or parietal wall
 Intra-operative major bleeding
Early post-operative time course in the post-anesthaesia care unit
 Unstable haemodynamics
  ECG signs of myocardial ischaemia
  Need for vasopressor support (other than related to epidural anaesthesia)
  Fluid/blood replacement
 Need for noninvasive ventilation support
  • #: according to 185. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; MELD: model for end-stage liver disease; VO2: oxygen consumption.