Table 1—

Subject characteristics

Healthy controlsControls with asthmaSwimmersCold-air athletes
Subjects n32323232
Sex male:female18:1418:1418:1426:6
Age yrs22±221±320±219±2
Atopy24 (75)27 (84)25 (78)24 (75)
Training yrs10±310±4
Training h·week−121±616±7
Previous physician-diagnosed asthma7 (22)6 (19)
Using inhaled β2-agonists0 (0)20 (63)5 (16)6 (19)
Using inhaled corticosteroids0 (0)3 (9)0 (0)3 (9)
FEV1 L4.1±0.83.9±0.84.7±0.8*,###4.7±0.7*,###
FEV1 % pred101±1499±15115±13***,###112±13*,#
FVC L5.0±1.14.9±1.15.9±1.2*,###5.7±0.9*,###
FVC % pred106±14106±15127±14***,###119±13***,###,¶
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; % pred: % predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity. *: p<0.05 and ***: p<0.001 versus healthy controls; #: p<0.05 and ###: p<0.001 versus controls with asthma; : p<0.05 versus cold-air athletes.