Table 2—

Risk factors associated with QuantiFERON® in-tube (QFT-GIT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in subjects with rheumatic diseases: multivariate analysis

QFT-GIT positiveTST positive
OR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-value
Male2.1 (1.1–4.2)0.011.65 (0.9–2.9)0.08
BCG vaccinatedNANA3.8 (1.0–13.9)0.04
Age yrs
 ≤29RefRef
 30–492.8 (0.3–23.4)0.38.6 (1.0–69.7)0.04
 50–696.8 (0.8–53.0)0.0614.7 (1.8–117.2)0.01
 >7015.9 (1.9–132.0)0.0113.2 (1.5–112.7)0.01
Chest radiograph patterns
 No lesions of past TBRefRef
 Lesions of past TB1.3 (0.5–3.2)0.53.0 (1.3–6.8)0.005
 Other patterns0.4 (0.1–1.2)0.11.6 (0.7–3.4)0.1
Immunosuppressive therapy including
 Steroids0.4 (0.2–0.9)0.030.3 (0.2–0.6)0.002
 DMARD1.1 (0.5–2.3)0.71.7 (0.9–3.4)0.09
 TNF-α inhibitors0.9 (0.4–2)0.80.3 (0.1–0.6)0.004
Close contacts of patients with sputum-positive TB5.3 (1–28)0.046.5 (1.1–36.9)0.03
Birth/residence in countries at high prevalence of TB1.1 (0.2–5.8)0.83.7 (1.1–12.3)0.03
  • OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; BCG: bacillus Calmette–Guérin; TB: tuberculosis; DMARD: disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; TNF-α: tumour necrosis factor-α; NA: not available; Ref: reference. QFT-GIT from Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Australia.