Table 1—

Confirmed and suspected factors leading to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)

Factors of PH in COPDConsequences on pulmonary vessels
Airflow limitationPressure swings
EmphysemaReduction of the vascular bed
Alveolar hypoxiaVasoconstriction, remodelling
Hypercapnic acidosisVasoconstriction
PolycythaemiaHyperviscosity
Lung and systemic inflammationRemodelling, including fibrosis
  • PH: pulmonary hypertension.