Table 2—

Multivariate regression predicting diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease

Diabetes mellitusHypertensionCardiovascular disease
GOLD category
 3 or 4#1.5 (1.1–1.9)1.6 (1.3–1.9)2.4 (1.9–3.0)
 21.4 (1.2–1.6)1.4 (1.3–1.6)2.2 (1.9–2.5)
 1+0.9 (0.8–1.1)1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.7 (1.5–1.9)
 0§1.4 (1.3–1.6)1.2 (1.1–1.3)2.4 (2.1–2.8)
 Restrictedƒ2.1 (1.9–2.5)1.5 (1.4–1.7)2.4 (2.1–2.7)
 Normal111
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, education level and body mass index from 20,296 study subjects from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study during 1986–1989 and the Cardiovascular Health Study during 1989–1990. GOLD: Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease. #: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70 and FEV1 <50% predicted; : FEV1/FVC <0.70 and FEV1 ≥50 to <80% pred; +: FEV1/FVC <0.70 and FEV1 ≥80% pred; §: presence of respiratory symptoms in the absence of any lung function abnormality; ƒ: FEV1/FVC ≥0.70 and FVC <80% pred.