Table 4—

Association of asthma with other painkiller use

<1 day·week−1 OR≥1 day·week−1
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted# OR (95% CI)p-value
Ghent1.001.13 (0.30–4.20)0.861.94 (0.37–10.34)0.44
Vienna1.000.88 (0.09–8.58)0.910.14 (0.001–14.86)0.41
Odense1.002.53 (0.48–13.29)0.273.80 (0.35–41.49)0.27
Berlin1.004.70 (0.46–47.92)0.198.02 (0.39–165.49)0.18
Palermo1.001.04 (0.29–3.66)0.960.26 (0.02–2.96)0.28
Rome1.004.35 (0.47–40.39)0.209.97 (0.69–143.64)0.09
Łódź1.003.58 (0.39–33.31)0.268.63 (0.41–183.41)0.17
Coimbra1.001.50 (0.34–6.63)0.601.04 (0.18–6.05)0.97
Stockholm1.002.42 (0.26–22.51)0.4422.11 (0.57–855.75)0.10
London1.001.07 (0.25–4.51)0.930.62 (0.11–3.47)0.58
Overall1.001.60 (0.94–2.73)0.091.85 (0.79–4.31)0.15
  • In testing for heterogeneity (Cochran’s Q) of the combined results that contributed towards the overall mean result, Chi-squared = 3.84 (9 degrees of freedom (df); p = 0.92) for unadjusted values and 11.13 (9 df; p = 0.27) for adjusted values. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. #: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, smoking and supplement use.