Table 1—

An overview of the characteristics of neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction(NRAD) and fibroproliferative bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (fBOS)

NRADfBOS
Inflammation (BAL)Neutrophilic airway inflammationNo airway inflammation
ClinicallyCoarse crackles and increased sputum productionNo coarse crackles, minimal sputum
Time of onsetEarly onset after transplantationLate onset after transplantation
ProgressionSlow progression, several yearsRapid progression, 6 months
HistologyInitially inflammatory, ends in pure fibrosisPure fibrosis
RadiologyBronchiectasis, airway wall thickening andmucus pluggingAir trapping andconsolidation
AzithromycinReversible (effective)Irreversible (ineffective)
  • BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage.