Table 2—

Initial presentation, diagnostic procedures and treatments

Patients nData
Increased/recent symptoms791
 Dyspnoea99.2
 Cough78.1
 Expectoration59.7
 Sputum purulence42.6
mMRC dyspnoea grade at entry7414.2±1.1
 0–12.8
 2–319.6
 4–577.6
Signs of severity793
 Cyanosis29.0
 Neurological impairment11.0
 Lower limb oedema23.3
 Asterixis7.8
 Use of accessory inspiratory muscles50.9
 Expiratory use of abdominal muscles37.8
Signs from clinical severity index793
 027.6
 1–247.7
 ≥324.7
Cardiac frequency beats·min−178598.5±19.8
Respiratory frequency breaths·min−170626.9±7.2
Arterial blood pressure mmHg752144±28/78±16
Peak expiratory flow rate767
 Measurement16.9
 Result L·min−1185.1±84.9
Treatments789
 β2-agonists89.2
 Anticholinergic agents80.1
 Inhaled corticosteroids6.7
 Systemic corticosteroids45.5
 Oxygen therapy82.8
Length of stay in the ED h66711.8±14.1
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or percentage. mMRC: modified UK Medical Research Council; ED: emergency department. 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa.