Table 4—

Dog ownership and contact during childhood and development of allergic diseases and symptoms between 4 and 6 yrs of age, adjusted for cat ownership and frequent contact with cats

Generalised estimating equation model
LISA studyGINI noninterventionGINI intervention
Dog ownershipDog contact only#Dog ownershipDog contact only#Dog ownershipDog contact only#
Dog ownership and contact in the first year of life
 Doctor-diagnosed allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma1.6 (0.6–4.0)1.0 (0.4–2.3)2.1 (0.9–5.0)2.5 (1.2–5.4)0.7 (0.3–1.9)1.0 (0.5–1.9)
  Allergic rhinitis0.5 (0.2–1.3)1.5 (0.9–2.4)0.9 (0.4–2.0)0.5 (0.3–0.9)0.7 (0.3–1.4)1.3 (0.8–2.0)
  Eczema0.7 (0.4–1.2)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–2.0)0.8 (0.5–1.2)1.0 (0.6–1.6)0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 Symptoms of allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma+0.9 (0.6–1.4)1.3 (0.9–1.8)0.9 (0.6–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.9 (0.5–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  Allergic rhinitis§1.1 (0.8–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.4 (0.9–2.0)0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.6 (0.4–1.0)1.4 (1.0–1.9)
  Eczemaƒ0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.4 (1.0–2.1)0.8 (0.6–1.1)1.0 (0.7–1.6)0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Dog ownership and contact in the first 4 yrs of life##
 Doctor diagnosed allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma1.1 (0.4–2.8)0.7 (0.4–1.5)1.9 (0.8–4.0)1.5 (0.5–4.0)0.8 (0.3–2.0)1.0 (0.5–1.9)
  Allergic rhinitis0.5 (0.2–1.2)1.2 (0.8–2)0.8 (0.4–1.6)0.9 (0.5–1.7)0.7 (0.3–1.4)0.9 (0.6–1.5)
  Eczema0.7 (0.4–1.1)1 (0.7–1.4)1.4 (0.9–2.1)1 (0.6–1.5)0.6 (0.4–1.1)0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 Symptoms of allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma+0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.0 (0.7–1.3)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–2.0)1.3 (0.9–2.0)
  Allergic rhinitis§0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.8–1.7)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.5)
  Eczemaƒ0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.1 (0.8–1.3)1.5 (1.1–2.1)1.1 (0.8–1.5)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.9 (0.6–1.2)
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval). LISA: Influences of Lifestyle Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood; GINA: German Infant Nutritional Intervention Programme. #: dog owners were excluded; : adjusted for sex, study centre, parental educational level, parental allergy, cat ownership at age 1 yr and frequent contact with cat outside the domestic area at age 1 yr; +: defined as wheezing sound in the chest; §: defined as sneezing, running nose or nasal congestion without cold; ƒ: defined as itchy rash that affected skin crease, face, neck, extremities, hands or feet; ##: adjusted for sex, study centre, parental educational level, parental allergy, cat ownership up to age 4 yrs and frequent contact with cat outside the domestic area up to age 4 yrs.