Table 3—

Dog ownership and contact during childhood and development of allergic diseases and symptoms between 4 and 6 yrs of age#

Generalised estimating equation model
LISA studyGINI noninterventionGINI intervention
Dog ownershipDog contact onlyDog ownershipDog contact onlyDog ownershipDog contact only
Dog ownership and contact in the first year of life
 Doctor-diagnosed allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma1.5 (0.6–3.9)1.0 (0.5–2.2)2.1 (0.9–5.0)2.1 (1.0–4.3)0.9 (0.4–2.2)1.1 (0.5–2.1)
  Allergic rhinitis0.5 (0.2–1.2)1.4 (0.9–2.3)0.9 (0.4–2.0)0.5 (0.3–0.9)0.8 (0.4–1.6)1.3 (0.8–1.9)
  Eczema0.6 (0.4–1.1)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–1.9)0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.0 (0.6–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Symptoms of allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma+0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.3 (1.0–1.8)1.0 (0.6–1.5)0.9 (0.7–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
  Allergic rhinitis§1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.4 (0.9–2.0)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1.1)1.3 (1.0–1.9)
  Eczemaƒ0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.4 (1.0–2.0)0.8 (0.6–1.1)1.1 (0.7–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Dog ownership and contact in the first 4 yrs of life
 Doctor-diagnosed allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma1.2 (0.5–3–0)0.8 (0.4–1.5)1.5 (0.7–3.4)1.3 (0.5–3.2)0.8 (0.3–1.8)1.0 (0.5–2.0)
  Allergic rhinitis0.5 (0.2–1.0)1.3 (0.9–2.1)0.8 (0.4–1.6)1.2 (0.7–2.0)0.8 (0.4–1.5)1.1 (0.7–1.7)
  Eczema0.7 (0.4–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.8–1.8)1.0 (0.7–1.5)0.7 (0.5–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Symptoms of allergic disease at age 4, 5 and 6 yrs
  Asthma+1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–1.8)1.2 (0.8–1.8)
  Allergic rhinitis§0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.1 (0.8–1.5)0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
  Eczemaƒ0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.4 (1.0–1.9)1.0 (0.8–1.4)0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval). LISA: Influences of Lifestyle Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood; GINA: German Infant Nutritional Intervention Programme. #: model adjusted for sex, study centre, parental educational level and parental allergy; : dog owners were excluded; +: defined as wheezing sound in the chest; §: defined as sneezing, running nose or nasal congestion without cold; ƒ: defined as itchy rash that effected skin crease, face, neck, extremities, hands or feet.