Table 4—

Fractional areas of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) within the airway smooth muscle in fatal asthma (FA) and nonasthma control (NAC) cases

Fractional area %p-value#
FANAC
MMP-9
 Large airway1.7 (0.5–5.4)0.4 (0.3–0.4)0.01
 Small airway2.2 (0.6–3.2)2.0 (0.8–2.8)0.88
 p-value0.5200.043
MMP-12
 Large airway3.2 (2.1–7.9)1.0 (0.8–2.0)0.01
 Small airway1.6 (0.9–3.6)2.6 (0.6–3.7)0.97
 p-value0.0010.866
MMP-1
 Large airway1.1±2.30.2±0.20.17
 Small airway0.6±0.70.2±0.30.22
 p-value0.0800.295
MMP-2
 Large airway0.7±0.70.8±0.80.54
 Small airway0.5±0.50.6±0.50.59
 p-value0.4840.638
TIMP-1
 Large airway4.3±6.01.3±1.60.55
 Small airway1.7±3.31.4±2.40.85
 p-value0.0540.516
TIMP-2
 Large airway4.0 (1.3–10.1)2.0 (1.4–2.1)0.099
 Small airway1.7 (0.5–7.8)6.7 (2.6–9.8)0.18
 p-value0.6870.025
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. #: unpaired t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test for comparison between the patient groups; : paired t-test or Wilcoxon test for comparison of large airway versus small airway.