Table 4—

Expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 in CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)

Never-smokersSmokers with normal lung functionCOPD patientsp-value
CD4+CD28+ %
 Blood95.6±1.798.4±0.797.3±0.9ns
 BALF58.0±11.275.0±6.971.1±5.30.08
 p-value0.0070.0060.0001
CD8+CD28+ %
 Blood52.5±4.655.2±8.658.9±4.7ns
 BALF57.6±6.326.6±7.329.1±4.70.0078#
 p-valuens0.0260.0002
  • Data are presented as mean±sem, unless otherwise stated. Percentages of CD4+CD28+ or CD8+CD28+ refer to the total amount of CD4 or CD8 T-cells respectively. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ns: nonsignificant. #: for never-smokers versus smokers, with or without COPD.