Table 3—

Association between treatments and vaccinations and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

VariableCAPControlsOR (95% CI)p-value
Subjects n13361326
Regular treatments during last year
 Acetylsalicylic acid98 (7.3)94 (7.1)1.04 (0.77–1.39)0.806
 Digoxin32 (2.4)13 (1.0)2.48 (1.30–4.74)0.005
 Amiodarone24 (1.8)6 (0.5)4.02 (1.64–9.88)0.001
 Calcium antagonists71 (5.3)84 (6.3)0.83 (0.60–1.15)0.261
 Diuretics182 (13.6)128 (9.7)1.48 (1.16–1.88)0.001
 Benzodiacepines109 (8.2)127 (9.6)0.94 (0.64–1.10)0.198
 Gastric acid-suppressive drugs
  Any123 (9.2)107 (8.1)1.16 (0.88–1.52)0.296
  Proton pump inhibitors44 (3.3)32 (2.4)1.38 (0.87–2.18)0.173
  Histamine H2 receptor antagonists42 (3.1)38 (2.9)1.10 (0.70–1.72)0.675
  Antacids44 (3.3)43 (3.2)1.02 (0.66–1.56)0.942
N-acetylcysteine30 (2.2)8 (0.6)3.78 (1.73–8.29)<0.001
 Xanthines22 (1.6)5 (0.4)4.42 (1.67–11.72)0.001
 Oral corticosteroids43 (3.2)12 (0.9)3.64 (1.91–6.94)<0.001
 Inhaled steroids117 (8.8)40 (3.0)3.09 (2.14–4.46)0.001
 Inhaled β-agonists103 (7.7)59 (3.9)2.05 (1.45–2.88)<0.001
 Inhaled anticholinergic drugs93 (7.0)27 (2.0)3.60 (2.33–5.56)<0.001
 Oxygen therapy45 (3.6)18 (1.4)2.58 (1.49–4.49)<0.001
 Inhalers
  Without spacer device144 (11.5)65 (5.2)2.39 (1.76–3.23)<0.001
  With spacer device79 (6.3)25 (2.0)3.30 (2.09–5.22)<0.001
Antibiotic treatment during last 3 months#
 Penicillins30 (2.3)33 (2.5)0.90 (0.55–1.49)0.691
 Cefalosporins15 (1.1)6 (0.5)2.50 (0.97–6.46)0.051
 Macrolides22 (1.6)11 (0.8)2.00 (0.97–4.14)0.057
 Aminoglycosides1 (0.1)0 (0.0)
 Quinolones9 (0.7)4 (0.3)2.24 (0.69–7.30)0.266
Vaccinations
 Influenza in last year469 (35.2)477 (36.0)0.96 (0.82–1.13)0.650
 Pneumococcal50 (3.9)64 (5.0)0.78 (0.53–1.13)0.190
 Haemophilus influenzae type b, ever4 (0.3)1 (0.1)4.03 (0.45–36.12)0.217
  • Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise stated. Data are from univariate analysis. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. #: cases and controls treated with antibiotics in the last 7 days were excluded from the analysis.