Table 1—

Association between health habits and lifestyle factors and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

VariableCAPControlsOR (95% CI)p-value
Subjects n13361326
Body mass index
 Normal769 (64.0)780 (64.5)1
 Underweight115 (9.6)53 (4.4)2.20 (1.57–3.09)<0.001
 Overweight214 (17.8)245 (20.2)0.89 (0.72–1.09)
 Obese103 (8.6)132 (10.9)0.79 (0.60–1.04)
Smoking status
 Never-smoker548 (41.0)643 (48.5)1
 Ex-smoker423 (31.7)363 (27.4)1.37 (1.14–1.64)0.001
 Current smoker365 (27.3)320 (24.1)1.34 (1.11–1.62)
Passive smoker#143 (30.4)140 (26.3)1.22 (0.93–1.61)0.155
Pack-yrs
 0548 (43.4)643 (51.8)1
 1–150354 (28.0)358 (28.8)1.16 (0.96–1.40)<0.001
 151–300233 (18.4)169 (13.6)1.62 (1.29–2.03)
 >300129 (10.2)71 (5.7)2.13 (1.56–2.91)
Male frequency of alcohol intake
 Never205 (31.2)210 (31.5)1
 Occasionally178 (27.1)156 (23.4)1.17 (0.88–1.56)0.269
 Usually274 (41.7)300 (45.0)0.94 (0.73–1.21)
Female frequency of alcohol intake
 Never353 (59.2)365 (60.2)1
 Occasionally160 (26.8)163 (26.9)1.02 (0.78–1.32)0.860
 Usually83 (13.9)78 (12.9)1.1 (0.78–1.55)
Male alcohol intake g·day−1
 0239 (33.8)237 (34.1)1
 0.1–20292 (41.3)304 (43.7)0.95 (0.75–1.21)
 21–4091 (12.9)103 (14.8)0.88 (0.63–1.22)
 41–8059 (8.3)41 (5.9)1.42 (0.92–2.21)0.037
 >8026 (3.7)11 (1.6)2.34 (1.13–4.85)
Female alcohol intake g·day−1
 0396 (63.0)394 (34.1)1
 0.1–20218 (34.7)221 (43.7)0.98 (0.78–1.24)
 21–4011 (1.7)10 (14.8)1.09 (0.46–2.61)0.980
 >404 (0.6)5 (0.75)0.80 (0.21–2.99)
Work-related contact with
 Smoke185 (14.2)163 (12.7)1.14 (0.97–1.43)0.243
 Petrol103 (7.9)102 (8.0)1.00 (0.75–1.33)0.989
 Dust257 (19.8)219 (17.0)1.20 (0.99–1.47)0.068
 Organic fibres82 (6.3)80 (6.2)1.02 (0.74–1.40)0.919
 Inorganic fibres87 (6.7)70 (5.4)1.25 (0.90–1.72)0.182
 Ionised radiation22 (1.7)14 (1.1)1.56 (0.80–3.10)0.190
 Nonionised radiation8 (0.6)12 (0.9)0.66 (0.27–1.62)0.357
 Animals, excrements, visceras149 (11.5)115 (9.0)1.78 (1.00–3.19)0.036
Sudden work temperature changes last 3 months113 (8.7)36 (2.8)3.28 (2.24–4.82)<0.001
>10 persons at home35 (2.6)16 (1.2)2.20 (1.21–4.00)0.009
Usual contact with children aged <15 yrs at home or work472 (35.4)356 (27.0)1.48 (1.26–1.75)<0.001
Contact with pets
 Any673 (50.6)565 (42.8)1.37 (1.18–1.60)<0.001
 Birds320 (24.0)254 (19.2)1.33 (1.10–1.60)0.003
 Cats189 (14.1)143 (10.8)1.36 (1.08–1.72)0.009
 Dogs380 (28.4)314 (23.7)1.28 (1.08–1.52)0.005
Educational level
 Low501 (37.7)441 (33.4)1
 Middle540 (40.6)557 (42.2)0.86 (0.72–1.01)0.048
 High288 (21.7)323 (24.5)0.78 (0.64–0.96)
Civil status
 Married or living with partner886 (66.7)924 (70)1
 Single, widowed or divorced443 (33.3)396 (30)1.17 (0.99–1.37)0.065
  • Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise stated. Data are from univariate analysis. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. #: only never-smokers were considered, and compared with those without passive exposure to tobacco smoke. : sudden work temperature change when coming in or out of a refrigerator, furnace or kitchen.