Table 3—

Therapeutic interventions

Nutrition
 Active nutritional support
 Appetite stimulation
Exercise
Oxygen
Anti-inflammatory drugs
 Specific cytokine targets
 Antioxidants
 Inhaled steroids and bronchodilators
Anabolic hormones
 Growth hormone (ghrelin)
 Insulin-like growth factor
 Nandrolone
 Oxandrolone
Other treatments (tested or suggested)
 Melanocortin-4 antagonists
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
 β-Blockade
 Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
 Creatine
 Omega-3 fatty acids
 Ubiquitin/proteasome inhibition